Efficacy of Trigger Point Injections and Dry Needling
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A trigger point (TrP) is determined by a deep tenderness in a taut band of muscle causing pain with a referral pattern and autonomic responses. Trigger point injections (TrPIs) are primarily related to myofascial pain syndromes, and based on new available data, TrPIs may play a major role for the management of headache disorders. The trapezius, splenius cervicis, levator scapulae, temporalis, and sternocleidomastoid muscles are the most common skeletal muscles in which TrPs could be detected. Local anesthetics, saline solution, corticosteroids, and botulinum toxin may be applied in various concentrations and combinations. Dry needling also presents satisfactory results. This chapter gives an overview of the theoretical and practical information about the definition, indications, contraindications, precautions, procedure, and outcomes for TrPIs for primary and secondary headache disorders.
KeywordsMyofascial pain Trigger point injection Dry needling Local anesthetics Tension-type headache Migraine
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