Delirium in Older Adults: Practical Guide for Primary Health Services

  • Manuel Coroa
  • Horácio Firmino
  • Vasco Nogueira
  • Luiz Miguel Santiago


Delirium is a common and serious acute neuropsychiatric syndrome and is known to increase the risk for subsequent functional decline and mortality. The etiologies of delirium are diverse and multifactorial and often reflect the pathophysiological consequences of an acute medical illness, medical complication or drug intoxication. Delirium can have a widely variable presentation and is often missed and underdiagnosed as a result. At this chapter we discuss the prediction, etiology, prevention, diagnosis, subtypes and treatment (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) of delirium in the elderly population.


Delirium Acute confusional state Acute brain failure Assessment scales Primary care 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manuel Coroa
    • 1
  • Horácio Firmino
    • 1
  • Vasco Nogueira
    • 2
  • Luiz Miguel Santiago
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Psychogeriatric UnitCoimbra University Hospital CenterCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Psychological Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  3. 3.Primary Health Care and General Practice of Faculty of Medicine of University of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

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