Skip to main content

Friend or Foe? An Overview of the Services and Disservices from Urban Green Spaces

Part of the SpringerBriefs in Geography book series (BRIEFSGEOGRAPHY)

Abstract

Many topics in urban planning have their share of pros and cons. The balance of two sides of a scale can be illustrated with an item such as a seesaw: there are times when the weight on one side outweighs the weight on the other. Depending on the scale and the objects involved, there are instances where the balance can shift from one side to the other over time. Thus, the pressures on the seesaw are not necessarily static but often dynamic. Similarly, some scholars and planners wonder when the benefits of urban green spaces outweigh the potential disservices. There has been more research on the ecosystem services and related benefits of green spaces than the risks. Dozens of studies have linked urban green spaces to mitigating the urban heat island effect, building community resilience, and buffering against storm events (Chawla et al. in Health Place 28:1–13, 2014; Jesdale et al. in Environ Health Perspect 121(7):811, 2013). And numerous reviews have identified significant pathways between exposure to natural environments and improved human health, such as increased physical activity, social contacts, and lower levels of stress (Fong et al. in Current Environ Health Rep 5(1):77–87, 2018; Markevych et al. in Environ Res 158:301–317, 2017; James et al. in Current Epidemiol Rep 2(2):131–142, 2015). Yet potential adverse effects of green spaces are either not mentioned or deemphasized in most studies and literature reviews of green spaces. A small body of work has found that some green space management development strategies can lead to undesirable health outcomes (i.e., seasonal allergies, infectious diseases, and injuries during outdoor recreation) as well as unwanted social outcomes (i.e., gentrification) (Nilsson et al. in Forests, trees and human health. Springer, pp 1–19, 2011). Green spaces can thus provide both services and disservices depending on the urban context and their design and maintenance, so these factors are essential aspects in socio-ecological frameworks of public health. In this chapter, we discuss the possible services and disservices derived from urban green spaces and how planners can balance the seesaw and emphasize the former over the latter.

Keywords

  • Green space
  • Benefits
  • Disservices
  • Disadvantages

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-10469-6_2
  • Chapter length: 24 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   54.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-10469-6
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   69.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 2.1
Fig. 2.2

References

  • Akpinar A, Barbosa-Leiker C, Brooks KR (2016) Does green space matter? Exploring relationships between green space type and health indicators. Urban For Urban Green 20:407–418

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Anguelovski I (2016) From toxic sites to parks as (green) LULUs? New challenges of inequity, privilege, gentrification, and exclusion for urban environmental justice. J Plann Lit 31(1):23–36

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Anguelovski I, Connolly JJ, Masip L, Pearsall H (2018) Assessing green gentrification in historically disenfranchised neighborhoods: a longitudinal and spatial analysis of Barcelona. Urban Geogr 39(3):458–491

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Astell-Burt T, Feng X, Kolt GS (2013) Does access to neighbourhood green space promote a healthy duration of sleep? Novel findings from a cross-sectional study of 259 319 Australians. BMJ open 3(8):e003094

    Google Scholar 

  • Bancroft C, Joshi S, Rundle A, Hutson M, Chong C, Weiss CC, et al (2015) Association of proximity and density of parks and objectively measured physical activity in the United States: A systematic review. Soc Sci Med, 138(C):22–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.05.034

  • Battaglia M, Buckley GL, Galvin M, Grove M (2014) It’s not easy going green: obstacles to tree-planting programs in East Baltimore

    Google Scholar 

  • Becker DA, Browning M, Kuo F, Van Den Eeden SK (2019) Is green land cover associated with less health care spending? Promising findings from county-level Medicare spending in the continental United States. Urban For Urban Greening, 1–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2019.02.012

  • Bell JF, Jeffrey SW, Gilbert CL (2008) Neighborhood Greenness and 2-Year Changes in Body Mass Index of Children and Youth. Am J Prev Med 35(6):547–553

    Google Scholar 

  • Benjamin MT, Winer AM (1998) Estimating the ozone-forming potential of urban trees and shrubs. Atmos Environ 32(1):53–68

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bosch-Cano F, Bernard N, Sudre B, Gillet F, Thibaudon M, Richard H, Badot P-M, Ruffaldi P (2011) Human exposure to allergenic pollens: a comparison between urban and rural areas. Environ Res 111(5):619–625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2011.04.001

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Branas CC, Cheney RA, MacDonald JM, Tam VW, Jackson TD, Have Ten TR (2011). A difference-in-differences analysis of health, safety, and greening vacant urban space. Am J Epidemiol, 174(11):1296–1306. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwr273

  • Bratman GN, Daily GC, Levy BJ, Gross JJ (2015) The benefits of nature experience: Improved affect and cognition. Landscape Urban Plann 138:41–50

    Google Scholar 

  • Browning M, Lee K (2017) Within what distance does “greenness” best predict physical health? A systematic review of articles with GIS buffer analyses across the lifespan. Int J Env Res Public Health 14(7):(675)

    Google Scholar 

  • Browning M, Rigolon A (2018) Do income, race and ethnicity, and sprawl influence the green space-human health link in city-level analyses? Findings from 496 cities in the United States. Int J Environ Res Public Health 15(7):1541

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Browning MH, Rigolon A (2019) School Green Space and Its Impact on Academic Performance: A Systematic Literature Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 16(3):429

    Google Scholar 

  • Broyles ST, Mowen AJ, Theall KP, Gustat J, Rung AL (2011) Integrating social capital into a park-use and active-living framework. Am J Prev Med 40(5):522–529

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cakmak S, Dales RE, Burnett RT, Judek S, Coates F, Brook JR (2002). Effect of airborne allergens on emergency visits by children for conjunctivitis and rhinitis. The Lancet, 359(9310):947–948. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08045-5

  • Cappuccio FP, Cooper D, D'elia L, Strazzullo P, Miller MA (2011) Sleep duration predicts cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur Heart J 32(12):1484–1492

    Google Scholar 

  • Cariñanos P, Casares-Porcel M (2011) Urban green zones and related pollen allergy: a review. Some guidelines for designing spaces with low allergy impact. Landscape Urban Plann 101(3):205–214

    Google Scholar 

  • Chan KM, Satterfield T, Goldstein J (2012) Rethinking ecosystem services to better address and navigate cultural values. Ecol Econ 74:8–18

    Google Scholar 

  • Chawla L, Keena K, Pevec I, Stanley E (2014) Green schoolyards as havens from stress and resources for resilience in childhood and adolescence. Health Place 28:1–13

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Checker M (2011) Wiped out by the “greenwave”: environmental gentrification and the paradoxical politics of urban sustainability. City Soc 23:210–229. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1548-744X.2011.01063.x

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen S (2004) Social relationships and health. Am Psychol 59(8):676

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen DA, Han B, Nagel CJ, Harnik P, McKenzie TL, Evenson KR, Marsh T, Williamson S, Vaughan C, Katta S (2016) The first national study of neighborhood parks: implications for physical activity. Am J Prev Med 51(4):419–426

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Conway D, Li CQ, Wolch J, Kahle C, Jerrett M (2010) A spatial autocorrelation approach for examining the effects of urban green space on residential property values. J Real Estate Finan Econ 41(2):150–169

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Costanza R, d'Arge R, De Groot R, Farber S, Grasso M, Hannon B, Limburg K, Naeem S, O'neill RV, Paruelo J (1997) The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nat 387(6630):(253)

    Google Scholar 

  • Crompton JL (2005) The impact of parks on property values: empirical evidence from the past two decades in the United States. Managing Leisure, 10:203–218

    Google Scholar 

  • Curran W, Hamilton T (2012) Just green enough: contesting environmental gentrification in Greenpoint, Brooklyn. Local Environ 17(9):1027–1042. https://doi.org/10.1080/13549839.2012.729569

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dadvand P, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Esnaola M, Forns J, Basagaña X, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Rivas I, López-Vicente M, Pascual MDC, Su J (2015) Green spaces and cognitive development in primary schoolchildren. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(26):7937–7942

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Damschen EI, Haddad NM, Orrock JL, Tewksbury JJ, Levey DJ (2006) Corridors Increase Plant Species Richness at Large Scales. Sci, 313(5791):1284–1286. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1130098

  • Darrow LA, Hess J, Rogers CA, Tolbert PE, Klein M, Sarnat, SE (2012) Ambient pollen concentrations and emergency department visits for asthma and wheeze. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 130(3):630–638.e4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2012.06.020

  • Dayawansa S, Umeno K, Takakura H, Hori E, Tabuchi E, Nagashima Y, et al (2003) Autonomic responses during inhalation of natural fragrance of “Cedrol” in humans. Auton Neurosci, 108(1-2):79–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autneu.2003.08.002

  • de Vries S, van Dillen SM, Groenewegen PP, Spreeuwenberg P (2013) Streetscape greenery and health: Stress, social cohesion and physical activity as mediators. Soc Sci Med 94:26–33

    Google Scholar 

  • Debinski DM, Holt RD (2000) A Survey and Overview of Habitat Fragmentation Experiments. Conserv Biol, 14(2):342–355. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.98081.x

  • Donovan GH, Prestemon JP (2012) The effect of trees on crime in Portland, Oregon. Environ Behav 44(1):3–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916510383238

  • Donovan GH, Butry DT, Michael YL, Prestemon JP, Liebhold AM, Gatziolis D, Mao MY (2013) The relationship between trees and human health: Evidence from the spread of the Emerald Ash Borer. Am J Prev Med, 44(2):139–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.09.066

  • Dzhambov AM, Dimitrova DD, Dimitrakova ED (2014) Association between residential greenness and birth weight: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Urban For Urban Gree 13(4):621–629

    Google Scholar 

  • Eisen L, Barker CM, Moore CG, Pape WJ, Winters AM, Cheronis, N. (2010). Irrigated Agriculture is an Important Risk Factor for West Nile Virus Disease in the Hyperendemic Larimer-Boulder-Weld Area of North Central Colorado. J Med Entomol, 47(5):939–951. https://doi.org/10.1603/ME10036

  • Fong KC, Hart JE, James P (2018) A review of epidemiologic studies on greenness and health: updated literature through 2017. Curr Environ Health Rep 5(1):77–87

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Francis J, Giles-Corti B, Wood L, Knuiman M (2012) Creating sense of community: The role of public space. J Environ Psychol 32(4):401–409. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2012.07.002

  • Garvin EC, Cannuscio CC, Branas CC (2013) Greening vacant lots to reduce violent crime: a randomised controlled trial. Inj Prev, 19(3):198–203. https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2012-040439

  • Gascon M, Triguero-Mas M, Martínez D, Dadvand P, Forns J, Plasència A, Nieuwenhuijsen M (2015) Mental health benefits of long-term exposure to residential green and blue spaces: A systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 12(4):4354–4379. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120404354

  • Gascon M, Triguero-Mas M, Martínez D, Dadvand P, Rojas-Rueda D, Plasència A, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ (2016) Residential green spaces and mortality: a systematic review. Environ Int 86:60–67

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ghazoul J (2015) Qualifying pollinator decline evidence. Science 348(6238):981–982. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.348.6238.981-b

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gilmour MI, Jaakkola MS, London SJ, Nel AE, Rogers CA (2006) How exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, outdoor air pollutants, and increased pollen burdens influences the incidence of asthma. Environ Health Perspect 114(4):627

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gilstad-Hayden K, Wallace LR, Carroll-Scott A, Meyer SR, Barbo S, Murphy-Dunning C, Ickovics JR (2015) Research note: Greater tree canopy cover is associated with lower rates of both violent and property crime in New Haven, CT. Landscape and Urban Plann, 143, 248–253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.08.005

  • Gladwell VF, Brown DK, Barton JL, Tarvainen MP, Kuoppa P, Pretty JN, et al (2012) The effects of views of nature on autonomic control. Eur J Appl Physiol, 112(9), 3379–3386. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-012-2318-8

  • Gould KA, Lewis TL (2016) Green gentrification: urban sustainability and the struggle for environmental justice. Routledge

    Google Scholar 

  • Grigsby-Toussaint DS, Turi KN, Krupa M, Williams NJ, Pandi-Perumal SR, Jean-Louis G (2015) Sleep insufficiency and the natural environment: results from the US behavioral risk factor surveillance system survey. Prev Med 78:78–84

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hamilton T, Curran W (2013) From “five angry women” to “kick-ass community”: gentrification and environmental activism in Brooklyn and beyond. Urban Stud 50(8):1557–1574

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Harmon D (2004) Intangible values of protected areas: What are they? Why do they matter? In: The George Wright Forum vol 2. JSTOR, pp 9–22

    Google Scholar 

  • Hartig T, Mitchell R, de Vries S, Frumkin H (2014) Nature and health. Annu Rev Public Health 35(1). https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182443

  • Heynen N (2016) Urban political ecology II: the abolitionist century. Prog Hum Geogr 40(6):839–845

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Holtan MT, Dieterlen SL, Sullivan WC (2015) Social life under cover: tree canopy and social capital in Baltimore, Maryland. Environ Behav 47(5):502–525

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hough RL (2014) Biodiversity and human health: evidence for causality? Biodivers Conserv, 23(2):267–288. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-013-0614-1

  • Hug S-M, Hansmann R, Monn C, Krütli P, Seeland K (2008) Restorative effects of physical activity in forests and indoor settings. Int J Fitness 4(2)

    Google Scholar 

  • Immergluck D, Balan T (2018) Sustainable for whom? Green urban development, environmental gentrification, and the Atlanta Beltline. Urban Geogr 39(4):546–562

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ingulli K, Lindbloom G (2013) Connection to Nature and Psychological Resilience. Ecopsychol 5(1):52–55. https://doi.org/10.1089/eco.2012.0042

  • James W (1892) Textbook of psychology. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press

    Google Scholar 

  • James P, Banay RF, Hart JE, Laden F (2015) A review of the health benefits of greenness. Current Epidemiol Rep 2(2):131–142

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jennings VL, Bamkole O (2019) The Relationship between Social Cohesion and Urban Green Space: An Avenue for Health Promotion. Int J Env Res Public Health 16(3):452–14. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030452

  • Jesdale BM, Morello-Frosch R, Cushing L (2013) The racial/ethnic distribution of heat risk–related land cover in relation to residential segregation. Environ Health Perspect 121(7):811

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kaplan S (2001) Meditation, restoration, and the management of mental fatigue. Environ Behav 33(4):480–506. https://doi.org/10.1177/00139160121973106

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Karl T, Harley P, Emmons L, Thornton B, Guenther A, Basu C, Turnipseed A, Jardine K (2010) Efficient atmospheric cleansing of oxidized organic trace gases by vegetation. Science 330(6005):816–819

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kellert SR, Wilson EO (1993) The Biophilia Hypothesis. Island Press, Washington DC.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kerr JH, Fujiyama H, Sugano A, Okamura T, Chang M, Onouha F (2006) Psychological responses to exercising in laboratory and natural environments. Psychol sport and Exer 7(4):345–359

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim D, Subramanian S, Kawachi I (2008) Social capital and physical health. In: Social capital and health. Springer, pp 139–190

    Google Scholar 

  • Komori T, Fujiwara R, Tanida M, Nomura J, Yokoyama, MM (1995) Effects of Citrus Fragrance on Immune Function and Depressive States. Neuroimmunomodulation, 2(3):174–180. https://doi.org/10.1159/000096889

  • Kuo F, Sullivan WC (2001) Aggression and violence in the inner city: Effects of environment via mental fatigue. Envir Behav, 33(4):543–571. https://doi.org/10.1177/00139160121973124

  • Kuo F (2015). How might contact with nature promote human health? Promising mechanisms and a possible central pathway. Front Psychol, 6:1–8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01093

  • Larson LR, Jennings V, Cloutier SA (2016a) Public parks and wellbeing in urban areas of the United States. PLoS ONE 11(4):e0153211

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Larson LR, Keith SJ, Fernandez M, Hallo JC, Shafer CS, Jennings V (2016b) Ecosystem services and urban greenways: what’s the public’s perspective? Ecosyst Serv 22:111–116

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Li Q, Nakadai A, Matsushima H, Miyazaki Y, Krensky AM, Kawada T, Morimoto K (2006) Phytoncides (wood essential oils) induce human natural killer cell activity. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol, 28(2):319–333. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923970600809439

  • Li Q, Morimoto K, Nakadai A, Inagaki H, Katsumata M, Shimizu T, et al (2007) Forest bathing enhances human natural killer activity and expression of anti-cancer proteins. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol, 20(2 suppl):3–8. https://doi.org/10.1177/03946320070200S202

  • Li Q, Kobayashi M, Wakayama Y, Inagaki H, Katsumata M, Hirata Y, et al (2009) Effect of phytoncide from trees on human natural killer cell function. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol, 22(4):951–959. https://doi.org/10.1177/039463200902200410

  • Lõhmus M, Balbus J (2015) Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure. Infect Ecol Epidemiol 5(1):30082

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mackay GJ, Neill JT (2010) The effect of “green exercise” on state anxiety and the role of exercise duration, intensity, and greenness: A quasi-experimental study. Psychol sport and exerc 11(3):238–245

    Google Scholar 

  • Mantler A, Logan AC (2015) Natural environments and mental health. Adv Integr Med 2(1):5–12

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Markevych I, Schoierer J, Hartig T, Chudnovsky A, Hystad P, Dzhambov AM, De Vries S, Triguero-Mas M, Brauer M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ (2017) Exploring pathways linking green space to health: theoretical and methodological guidance. Environ Res 158:301–317

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Merino H, Senra C, Ferreiro F (2016) Are worry and rumination specific pathways linking neuroticism and symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder and mixed anxiety-depressive disorder? PLoS ONE 11(5):e0156169

    Google Scholar 

  • Mills JG, Weinstein P, Gellie NJ, Weyrich LS, Lowe AJ, Breed MF (2017) Urban habitat restoration provides a human health benefit through microbiome rewilding: the Microbiome Rewilding Hypothesis. Restor Ecol 25(6):866–872

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Morita E, Imai M, Okawa M, Miyaura T, Miyazaki S (2011) A before and after comparison of the effects of forest walking on the sleep of a community-based sample of people with sleep complaints. Bio Psycho Soc Med 5(1):13

    Google Scholar 

  • Nejad AB, Fossati P, Lemogne C (2013) Self-referential processing, rumination, and cortical midline structures in major depression. Front Hum Neurosci 7:666

    Google Scholar 

  • Newman CM, Cerutti F, Anderson TK, Hamer GL, Walker ED, Kitron UD, et al (2011) Culex Flavivirus and West Nile Virus Mosquito Coinfection and Positive Ecological Association in Chicago, United States. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Dis, 11(8):1099–1105. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2010.0144

  • Niemelä J, Saarela, S-R, Söderman T, Kopperoinen L, Yli-Pelkonen V, Väre S, Kotze DJ (2010) Using the ecosystem services approach for better planning and conservation of urban green spaces: a Finland case study. Biodivers Conserv, 19(11):3225–3243. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-010-9888-8

  • Nilsson K, Sangster M, Konijnendijk CC (2011) Forests, trees and human health and well-being: Introduction. In: Forests, trees and human health. Springer, pp 1–19

    Google Scholar 

  • Patz JA, Norris DE (2004) Land use change and human health. In: Ecosystems and land use change, pp 159–167

    Google Scholar 

  • Putnam RD (2000) Bowling alone: America’s declining social capital. In: Culture and politics. Springer, pp 223–234

    Google Scholar 

  • Rapport DJ (1998) Assessing ecosystem health. Trends Ecol Evol, 13(10):397–402. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(98)01449-9

  • Reid CE, Clougherty JE, Shmool JL, Kubzansky LD (2017) Is all urban green space the same? A comparison of the health benefits of trees and grass in New York City. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14(11):1411

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Richardson EA, Mitchell RJ, Hartig T, de Vries S, Astell-Burt T, Frumkin H (2011) Green cities and health: a question of scale? J Epidemiol Community Health, 66(2):160–165. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2011.137240

  • Rigolon A, Németh J (2018) “We’re not in the business of housing:” environmental gentrification and the nonprofitization of green infrastructure projects. Cities

    Google Scholar 

  • Roman CG, Chalfin A (2008) Fear of walking outdoors: a multilevel ecologic analysis of crime and disorder. Am J Prev Med 34(4):306–312

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Roy S, Byrne J, Pickering C (2012) A systematic quantitative review of urban tree benefits, costs, and assessment methods across cities in different climatic zones. Urban For Urban Green 11(4):351–363

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Salleh MR (2008) Life event, stress and illness. Malays J Med Sci 15(4):9–18

    Google Scholar 

  • Shochat E, Warren PS, Faeth SH, McIntyre NE, Hope D (2006) From patterns to emerging processes in mechanistic urban ecology. Trends Ecol Evol 21(4):186–191

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Simpson J, McPherson E (2011) The tree BVOC index. Environ Pollut 159(8–9):2088–2093

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Smith G, Duda S, Lee JM, Thompson M (2016) Measuring the impact of the 606: understanding how a large public investment impacted the surrounding housing market. DePaul University Institute for Housing Studies, Chicago

    Google Scholar 

  • Sullivan WC, Kuo FE, Depooter SF (2004) The fruit of urban nature: Vital neighborhood spaces. Environ behav 36(5):678–700

    Google Scholar 

  • Sullivan WC, Frumkin H, Jackson RJ, Chang C-Y (2014) Gaia meets Asclepius: creating healthy places. Landscape Urban Plann 127:182–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.03.005

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor L, Hochuli DF (2017) Defining green space: multiple uses across multiple disciplines. Landscape Urban Plann 158:25–38

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Troy A, Morgan Grove J, O’Neil-Dunne JPM (2012) The relationship between tree canopy and crime rates across an urban–rural gradient in the greater Baltimore region. Landscape and Urban Plann, 106(3):262–270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.03.010

  • Tzoulas K, Korpela K, Venn S, Yli-Pelkonen V, Kaźmierczak A, Niemelä J, James P (2007) Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using green infrastructure: A literature review. Landscape Urban Plann, 81(3):167–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.02.001

  • Ulrich RS, Simons RF, Losito BD, Fiorito E, Miles MA, Zelson M (1991) Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. J environ psychol 11(3):201–230

    Google Scholar 

  • Van den Berg AE, Maas J, Verheij RA, Groenewegen PP (2010) Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health. Soc Sci Med 70(8):1203–1210

    Google Scholar 

  • West ST, Shores KA, Mudd LM (2012) Association of Available Parkland, Physical Activity, and Overweight in America's Largest Cities. J Public Health Manag Pract 18(5):423–430

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolch JR, Byrne J, Newell JP (2014) Urban green space, public health, and environmental justice: the challenge of making cities ‘just green enough’. Landscape Urban Plann 125:234–244

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wolch J, Jerrett M, Reynolds K, McConnell R, Chang R, Dahmann N, Brady K, Gilliland F, Su JG, Berhane K (2011) Childhood obesity and proximity to urban parks and recreational resources: A longitudinal cohort study. Health Place 17(1):207–214.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolfe MK, Mennis J (2012) Does vegetation encourage or suppress urban crime? Evidence from Philadelphia, PA. Landscape Urban Plann 108(2–4):112–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.08.006

  • Yannick J, De Block A (2011) ‘Nature and I are two’: a critical examination of the biophilia hypothesis. Environ Values 20fs(2):189–215. https://doi.org/10.3197/096327111X12997574391724

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zelenski JM, Dopko RL, Capaldi CA (2015) Cooperation is in our nature: nature exposure may promote cooperative and environmentally sustainable behavior. J Environ Psychol 42:24–31

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Viniece Jennings .

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Jennings, V., Browning, M.H.E.M., Rigolon, A. (2019). Friend or Foe? An Overview of the Services and Disservices from Urban Green Spaces. In: Urban Green Spaces. SpringerBriefs in Geography. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-10469-6_2

Download citation