• Maria João Cascais


The history of doping is as old as sport itself. From ancient times, athletes try to win at any cost, using all the resources they can discover. The WADA launches every year a List of forbidden substances and methods because a new year is an opportunity of improving the drugs or methods to achieve performances in sports which are not fair and can harm the athlete’s health. Besides the List, doping has become so sophisticated that athletes have to be controlled by a biological passport that can figure out if they are cheating about improving hemoglobin or steroids and so being checked in their “physiologic values, not so physiologic after all.”


Athletic performance Doping in sports Athletic injuries Sports medicine Controlled substances Hormones Diuretics 


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© ISAKOS 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria João Cascais
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.NOVA Medical School LisbonLisboaPortugal
  2. 2.Sports Medicine College, Medical Portuguese OrderLisboaPortugal

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