REWAS 2019 pp 373-382 | Cite as

Effect of Coal Ratio on Preparation of Si–Ti–Fe Alloy by Carbothermic Reduction with Coal Fly Ash

  • Kun Wang
  • Yan LiuEmail author
  • Song Qi
  • Jun Hao
  • Zhi-he Dou
  • Li-ping Niu
  • Ting-an Zhang
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


With the development of electric power industry, the discharge of coal fly ash increases year by year. At present, one problem of coal fly ash is low-value utilization. The improper treatment of coal fly ash will also cause harm to air, water, and soil as well as human health. To test a process including high-value utilization and reduction of environmental pollution, a Si–Ti–Fe alloy was prepared in an intermediate frequency induction furnace by carbothermic reduction using coal fly ash as raw material. Coke was used as reducing agent. In this paper, the effect of coal ratio on metal recovery rate, composition, and microstructure was studied. The suitable coal ratio was proposed for future process development which could expand the utilization of coal fly ash.


Coal ratio Si–Ti–Fe alloy Coal fly ash Carbothermic reduction 



This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. U1402271, U1710257), the National key research and development plan (2017YFC0210403-04).


  1. 1.
    Lu GZ, Zhang TA, Wang L et al (2014) Direct spray pyrolysis of aluminum chloride solution for alumina preparation. J Cent South Univ 21(12):4450–4455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ma BY, Ren XM, Yin Y et al (2017) Effects of processing parameters and rare earths additions on preparation of Al2O3–SiC composite powders from coal ash. Ceram Int 43:11830–11837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wu CY, Yu HF, Zhang HF (2012) Extraction of aluminum by pressure acid-leaching method from coal fly ash. Trans Nonferr Metals Soc China 22(9):2281−2288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yao ZT, Ji XS, Sarker PK et al (2015) A comprehensive review on the applications of coal fly ash. Earth Sci Rev 141(141):105–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Huang XJ (2007) Environmental hazards of coal fly ash and new technological utilization. Guangdong Chem Ind 34(5):77–79Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yang HC, Zheng SL (2003) Comprehensive utilization and prospects of fly ash and its characterization. China Non-Met Min Ind Her 4:38–40Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ahmaruzzaman M (2010) A review on the utilization of fly ash. Prog Energy Combust Sci 36(3):327–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ram LC, Masto RE (2014) Fly ash for soil amelioration: a review on the influence of ash blending with inorganic and organic amendments. Earth Sci Rev 128(1):52–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ram LC, Srivastava NK, Tripathi RC et al (2006) Management of mine spoil for crop productivity with lignite fly ash and biological amendments. J Environ Manag 79(2):173–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen B, Luo Z, Lu A (2011) Preparation of sintered foam glass with high fly ash content. Mater Lett 65(23):3555–3558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cho H, Oh D, Kim K (2005) A study on removal characteristics of heavy metals from aqueous solution by fly ash. J Hazard Mater 127(1):187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rawlings RD, Wu JP, Boccaccini AR (2006) Glass-ceramics: their production from wastes-a review. J Mater Sci 41(3):733–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zheng Y, Jensen AD, Windelin C et al (2012) Review of technologies for mercury removal from flue gas from cement production processes. Prog Energy Combust Sci 38(5):599–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Blissett RS, Rowson NA (2012) A review of the multi-component utilisation of coal fly ash. Fuel 97(7):1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nagano T, Chen FY (1992) Technical trend of recovering valuable materials from fly ash. Comprehensive utilization of fly ash 02:47–50Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lin IJ, Malts N, Shindler Y (1998) The complex chemical treatment of alumina–silica-containing materials. J Mater Synth Process 6(1):27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pickles CA, Mclean A, Alcock CB et al (1990) Plasma recovery of metal values from fly ash. Can Metall Q 29(3):193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang MJ, Qiu ZX (1992) Manufacturing Si-Al-Fe alloy directly from coal waste and fly ash by electrothermal process. Ferroalloy 04:19–23Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yang D, Feng NX, Wang YW et al (2010) Thermodynamic analysis and experimental test of coarse Al–Si alloy prepared by carbothermal reduction of bauxite tail. Non-ferr Min Metall 26(01):38–43Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kun Wang
    • 1
  • Yan Liu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Song Qi
    • 1
  • Jun Hao
    • 1
  • Zhi-he Dou
    • 1
  • Li-ping Niu
    • 1
  • Ting-an Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Ecological Metallurgy of Multi-metal Intergrown Ores of Ministry of EducationSpecial Metallurgy and Process Engineering Institute, Northeastern UniversityShenyangChina

Personalised recommendations