wraudit: A Tool to Transparently Monitor Web Resources’ Integrity

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11308)


JavaScript has become the language of reference for programming the client-side logics of web-applications. However, there is no native full support to protect the integrity of this code from modifications conducted by the server where it is hosted. Many election applications, including internet voting solutions, are based on this language. Thus, if the server that hosts the code is compromised, a modified version of the code could be served and some election security properties affected, e.g. voter privacy, vote integrity, and so on. Furthermore, the usage of a Content Delivery Network (CDN) to mitigate Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks on internet voting solutions has been called into question for similar reasons. A malicious administrator of the hosting provider could have the opportunity to modify JavaScript files affecting the web application’s code integrity. In order to tackle this problem, in this article we propose a solution that mitigates those risks by using a service called wraudit that transparently monitors the integrity of the published code. The service design and implementation are presented and the first insights from our experience using it are explained.


Web resources JavaScript Code integrity Monitoring tool Experience 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Scytl Secure Electronic Voting S.A.BarcelonaSpain

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