Friction Stir Welding of Lap Joints Using New Al–Li Alloys for Stringer-Skin Joints
The aeronautic industry is continuously looking for new structural concepts with the aim of reducing dangerous gas emissions as well as reducing manufacturing costs and times. The development of advanced lightweight structures is an effective alternative to achieve the mentioned goals. Reinforced panels produced by the third generation aluminum–lithium alloys and Friction Stir Welding (FSW) can bring new solutions for more efficient aircrafts. This work presents the results obtained in the development and characterization of FSW joints directed to reinforced panel manufacturing. FSW lap joints were produced using aluminum–lithium alloys AA2099-T83 extrusions and AA2060-T8E30 sheets. Several welding parameter combinations and FSW tool designs were used to produce the joints. Joint properties were investigated by metallographic examination, microhardness tests as well as mechanical strength testing. The appropriate FSW conditions to optimize joint properties were established.
KeywordsFriction stir welding Lap joints Al–Li
This work has been performed in the frame of the project ecoTECH within the AIRFRAME ITD of the Clean Sky 2 programme of the H2020. The authors acknowledge the funding received for this project under the project ID 807083 of the call H2020-IBA-CS2-GAMS-2017.
- 2.Mendez P, Eagar T (2002) New trends in welding in the aeronautic industry. In: Proceedings of 2nd conference of new manufacturing trends, Bilbao, SpainGoogle Scholar
- 3.Talwar R et al (2000) Friction stir welding of airframe structures. In: Proceedings of 2nd international symposium on friction stir welding, Gothenburg, Sweden, pp 27–29Google Scholar
- 4.Assler H, Telgkamp J (2006) Design of aircraft structures under special consideration of NDT. In: Proceedings of 9th European conference on NDT, Berlin (Germany)Google Scholar
- 5.Christner B (2016) A friction stir welded jet aircraft: from concept to reality. In: Proceedings of 11th international symposium on friction stir welding, Cambridge, UK, 17 May 2016Google Scholar
- 6.Fernandez F (2010) FSW applied on mid-size aircraft. In: Proceedings of 8th international symposium on friction stir welding, Timmendorfer Strand, Germany, 18–20 May 2010Google Scholar
- 7.Tavares SM (2011) Design and advanced manufacturing of aircraft structures using friction stir welding. PhD thesis, Universidade do Porto (Portugal)Google Scholar
- 8.Freeman J, Moore G, Thomas B, Kok L (2006) Advances in FSW for commercial aircraft applications. In: 6th international symposium on friction stir welding, Toronto (Canada)Google Scholar
- 9.Cederquist L, Reynolds AP (2001) Factors affecting the properties of friction stir welded aluminium lap joints. Weld J Res Suppl 80:281Google Scholar
- 12.Aldanondo E et al (2016) Microstructural features in friction stir welded lap joints. In: Proceedings of 10th international conference on trends in welding research, Tokyo, Japan, 10–14 Oct 2016Google Scholar
- 13.Aldanondo E, Arruti E, Echeverria A (2017) Friction stir weld lap joint properties in aeronautic aluminium alloys. In: Proceedings of 148th friction stir welding and processing X, in annual meeting and exhibition TMS2017, San Diego (USA)Google Scholar
- 17.ISO, ISO25239 (2011) Friction stir welding—aluminium, Geneva (Switzerland)Google Scholar
- 18.Eswara Prasad N, Gokhale AA, Wanhill R (2014) Aluminium-lithium alloys: processing, properties and applications. Elsevier-BH, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar