Intermittent Flow of Material and Force-Based Defect Detection During Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys

  • Daniel J. Franke
  • Michael R. Zinn
  • Frank E. PfefferkornEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


The cost limitations of post-weld inspection have driven the need for in situ process monitoring of subsurface defects. Subsurface defects are believed to be formed due to a breakdown in the intermittent flow of material around the friction stir tool once per revolution. This work examines the intermittent flow of material and its relation to defect formation. In addition, advances have been made in a force-based defect detection model that links changes in process forces to the formation and size of defects. A range of aluminum alloys has been examined, showing that softer aluminum alloys produce less distinct changes in process forces during defect formation and harder aluminum alloys produce more distinct changes when using the same tool geometry.


Aluminum alloys Nondestructive evaluation Intermittent material flow Forces 



The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support of this work by the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Machine Tool Technology Research Foundation, and the U.S. National Science Foundation through grants CMMI-1332738 and CMMI-1826104.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel J. Franke
    • 1
  • Michael R. Zinn
    • 1
  • Frank E. Pfefferkorn
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

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