Advertisement

The First Large-Scale Offshore Aerial Survey Using a High-Resolution Camera System

  • Stephanie McGovernEmail author
  • Julia Robinson Wilmott
  • Gregory Lampman
  • Ann Pembroke
  • Simon Warford
  • Mark Rehfisch
  • Stuart Clough
Chapter

Abstract

Aerial digital surveying techniques using aircraft flying at significantly higher and safer altitudes than observer-based aerial surveys have become a key tool in surveying offshore environments worldwide. In preparation for offshore wind energy development, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) has initiated what is probably the world’s largest (43,500 km2) and highest-resolution offshore aerial survey of marine wildlife. The survey uses ultrahigh-resolution aerial digital imagery captured with the purpose-built camera system “Shearwater III” at 1.5 cm ground sampling distance (GSD) from a twin-engine aircraft flying at 415 m. This baseline study using an innovative survey technique will facilitate a more efficient planning of energy production offshore by providing the necessary information to meet regulatory requirements for environmental review of wind energy areas (WEAs). This review includes a high-level summary of methods and highlights the advantages of undertaking the NYSERDA surveys using high-resolution digital aerial techniques.

Keywords

Digital aerial survey Offshore bird surveys New York state 

References

  1. 1.
    European Commission: Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic and Social Committee, The Committee of the Regions and the European Investment A Framework Strategy for a Resilient Energy Union with a Forward-Looking Climate Change Policy/* COM/2015/080 final */. (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    PD 6900:2015: Environmental impact assessment for offshore renewable energy projects – Guide. Innovate UK, Swindon (2015)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Camphuysen, K., Fox, A., Leopold, M., Petersen, I.: Towards standardised seabirds at sea census techniques in connection with environmental impact assessments for offshore wind farms in the U.K.: a comparison of ship and aerial sampling methods for marine birds, and their applicability to offshore wind farm assessments, NIOZ report to COWRIE (BAM – 02-2002), Texel (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rehfisch, M., Michel, S.: Workshop: techniques for surveying MPAs from the air – from bay to ocean. IMPAC 3 Proceedings, pp. 39-54, Marseille-Ajaccio (2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coppack, T., McGovern, S., Rehfisch, M., Clough, S.: Estimating wintering populations of waterbirds by aerial high-resolution imaging. Vogelvelt. 137, 149–155 (2017)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thaxter, C., Burton, N.: High Definition Imagery for Surveying Seabirds and Marine Mammals: A Review of Recent Trials and Development of Protocols. British Trust for Ornithology Report Commissioned by Cowrie Ltd (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Normandeau Associates, Inc.: High-resolution Aerial Imaging Surveys of Marine Birds, Mammals, and Turtles on the US Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf—Utility Assessment, Methodology Recommendations, and Implementation Tools. US Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. Contract # M10PC00099 (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ross, K., Burton, N., Balmer, D., Humphreys, E., Austin, G., Goddard, B., Schindler-Dite, H., Rehfisch, M.: Urban Breeding Gull Surveys: A Review of Methods and Options for Survey Design BTO Research Report 680. BTO, Thetford (2016)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bakó, G., Tolnai, M., Takács, Á.: Introduction and testing of a monitoring and colony-mapping method for waterbird populations that uses high-speed and ultra-detailed aerial remote sensing. Sensors. 14, 12828–12846 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mellor, M., Maher, M.: Full Scale Trial of High Definition Video Survey for Offshore Windfarm Sites. COWRIE Ltd, London (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Buckland, S., Burt, M., Rexstad, E., Mellor, M., Williams, A., Woodward, R.: Aerial surveys of seabirds: the advent of digital methods. J. Appl. Ecol. 49, 960–967 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.APEM LtdStockportUK
  2. 2.Normandeau Associates IncGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.NYSERDAAlbanyUSA
  4. 4.Normandeau Associates IncBedfordUSA
  5. 5.APEM IncGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations