Advertisement

The Role of Adaptive Management in the Wind Energy Industry

  • Andrea CoppingEmail author
  • Victoria Gartman
  • Roel May
  • Finlay Bennet
Chapter

Abstract

Adaptive management (AM) is a systematic process intended to improve policies and practices and reduce scientific uncertainty by learning from the outcome of management decisions. Although many nations are considering the use of AM for wind energy, its application in practice and in policy has been limited. Recent applications of AM have revealed fundamental differences in the definition of AM, its applications, and the projects or planning processes to which it might be applied. This chapter suggests the need for a common understanding and definition of and framework for AM and its application to wind energy. We discuss a definition of AM and technical guidance created by the United States (US) Department of the Interior’s (DOI’s) Adaptive Management Working Group. The chapter also examines how AM has been applied to wind energy development in several European nations and in the USA. The challenges and opportunities associated with implementation of AM for wind development are addressed, management actions in nations that exhibit attributes of AM are compared, and pathways to appropriate application and potential broader use of AM are explored.

Keywords

Adaptive management Wind energy development Wind and wildlife interactions 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This chapter is derived from a white paper written under the Working Together to Resolve Environmental Effects of Wind Energy (WREN) initiative (https://tethys.pnnl.gov/publications/assessing-environmental-effects-wren-white-paper-adaptive-management-wind-energy). The WREN international collaborative is a collaboration of 11 nations that seek to identify and resolve conflicts between wind energy development and wildlife protection. The purpose of this chapter is to explore how AM is used in relation to the wind energy industry around the world and to identify ways the process and its implementation may be improved upon. We are grateful to all members of the WREN organization, particularly our co-authors on the white paper – Luke Hanna and Simon Geerlofs of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Luke Feinberg of the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Jocelyn Brown-Saracino and Patrick Gilman of the US Department of Energy, and Johann Köppel and Lea Bulling of the Berlin Institute of Technology – as well as the many contributors and reviewers who helped improve the white paper.

References

  1. 1.
    Northrup, J.M., Wittemyer, G.: Characterising the impacts of emerging energy development on wildlife, with an eye towards mitigation. Ecol. Lett. 16, 112–125 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    May, R., Gill, A.B., Köppel, J., Langston, R.H.W., Reichenbach, M., Scheidat, M., Smallwood, S., Voigt, C.C., Hüppop, O., Portman, M.: Future research directions to reconcile wind turbine–wildlife interactions. In: Köppel, J. (ed.) Proceedings of the Conference on Wind Energy and Wildlife Impacts, Berlin 2015, pp. 255–276. Springer, Cham (2017)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Köppel, J., Dahmen, M., Helfrich, J., Schuster, E., Bulling, L.: Cautious but committed: moving toward adaptive planning and operation strategies for renewable energy’s wildlife implications. Environ. Manag. 54(4), 744–755 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-014-0333-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Walters, C.J., Holling, C.S.: Large-scale management experiments and learning by doing. Ecology. 71, 2060–2068 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Strickland, M.D., Arnett, E.B., Erickson, W.P., Johnson, D.H., Johnson, G.D., Morrison, M.L., Shaffer, J.A., Warren-Hicks, W.: Comprehensive Guide to Studying Wind Energy/Wildlife Interactions. 289 pp. Prepared for the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative, Washington, DC. (2011)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Williams, B.K., Szaro, R.C., Shapiro, C.D.: Adaptive Management: The U.S. Department of the Interior Technical Guide. Adaptive Management Working Group, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Williams, B.K., Brown, E.D.: Adaptive Management: The U.S. Department of the Interior Applications Guide. Adaptive Management Working Group, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    NRC (National Research Council): Adaptive Management for Water Resources Planning. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Murray, C., Marmorek, D.: Adaptive management and ecological restoration. In: Friederici, P. (ed.) Ecological Restoration of Southwestern Ponderosa Pine Forests, A Sourcebook for Research and Application, pp. 417–428. Island Press, Washington, DC (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rogers, K.H., Biggs, H.: Integrating indicators, end points and value systems in the strategic management of the Kruger National Park. Freshw. Biol. 41, 439–451 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    Raffensperger, C., Tickner, J. (eds.): Protecting Public Health and the Environment: Implementing the Precautionary Principle. Island Press, Washington, DC (1999)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kriebel, D., Tickner, J., Epstein, P., Lemons, J., Levins, R., Loechler, E.L., Quinn, M., Rudel, R., Schettler, T., Stoto, M.: The precautionary principle in environmental science. Environ. Health Perspect. 109(9), 871 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jakle, A.: Wind Development and Wildlife Mitigation in Wyoming: A Primer. 40 pp. Ruckelshaus Institute of Environment and Natural Resources, Laramie (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kiesecker, J.M., Copeland, H., Pocewicz, A., McKenney, B.: Development by design: blending landscape-level planning with the mitigation hierarchy. Front. Ecol. Environ. 8(5), 261–266 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1890/090005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    May, R.: Mitigation for birds. In: Perrow, M. (ed.) Wildlife and Wind Farms: Conflicts and Solutions. Onshore, Solutions; Best Practice, Monitoring and Mitigation, vol. 2, pp. 124–145. Pelagic Publishing, Exeter (2017)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Business and Biodiversity Offsets Programme: Mitigation Hierarchy. http://bbop.forest-trends.org/pages/mitigation_hierarchy (2015)
  18. 18.
    MMO (Marine Management Organisation): Review of post-consent offshore wind farm monitoring data associated with licence conditions. A report produced for the Marine Management Organisation, MMO Project No: 1031 (2014). ISBN: 978-1-909452-24-4Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ward, R., Loftis, J., McBride, G.: The ‘data-rich but information-poor’ syndrome in water quality monitoring. Environ. Manag. 10, 291–297 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    German Ministry of the Environment, Agricultural, Nature and Consumer Protection of North Rhine-Westphalia (Translated): Ministerium für Umwelt, Landwirtshaft, Natur- und Verbraucherschutz des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (Fassung 10.11.2017). Leitfaden für die Umsetzung von Arten- und Lebensraumschutz bei der Planung und Genehmigung von Windenergieanlagen in Nordrhein-Westfalen. http://artenschutz.naturschutzinformationen.nrw.de/artenschutz/web/babel/media/20171110_nrw%20leitfaden%20wea%20artenhabitatschutz_inkl%20einfuehrungserlass.pdf (2017)
  21. 21.
    Rijkswaterstaat, permit: “BESLUIT inzake aanvraag Wbr-vergunning offshorewindturbinepark ‘Q10’” no. WSV/2009-1229, issued 18 December 2009 in Rijswijk, the Netherlands (2009)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wet windenergie op zee [Wind Energy at Sea Act]: As published in “Staatsblad van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden” [Dutch Government Gazette] on 30 June 2015 (no. 261) in the Netherlands (2015)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bevanger, K., Berntsen, F., Clausen, S., Dahl, E.L., Flagstad, Ø., Follestad, A., Halley, D., Hanssen, F., Johnsen, L., Kvaløy, P., Lund-Hoel, P., May, R., Nygård, T., Pedersen, H.C., Reitan, O., Røskaft, E., Steinheim, Y., Stokke, B., Vang, R.: Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway (BirdWind). Report on Findings 2007–2010. NINA Report 620, 152 pp. (2010)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bevanger, K., May, R., Stokke, B.: Landbasert vindkraft. Utfordringer for fugl, flaggermus og rein. NINA Temahefte 66, 72 pp. (2016)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cordeiro, A., Bernardino, J., Mascarenhas, M., Costa, H.: Impacts on Common Kestrels’ (Falco tinnunculus) populations: the case study of two Portuguese wind farms. Conference on Wind energy and Wildlife impacts. 2–5 May 2011. Trondheim, Norway (2011)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barrios, L., Rodríguez, A.: Behavioural and environmental correlates of soaring-bird mortality at on-shore wind turbines. J. Appl. Ecol. 41, 72–81 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    de Lucas, M., Ferrer, M., Bechard, M.J., Muñoz, A.R.: Griffon vulture mortality at wind farms in southern Spain: Distribution of fatalities and active mitigation measures. Biol. Conserv. 147, 184–189 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ferrer, M., de Lucas, M., Janss, G.F.E., Casado, E., Muñoz, A.R., Bechard, M.J., Calabuig, C.P.: Weak relationship between risk assessment studies and recorded mortality in wind farms. J. Appl. Ecol. 49, 38–46 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Swiss Federal Office of Energy. 2017: “Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE – Feed-in Remuneration at Cost.” http://www.bfe.admin.ch/themen/00612/02073/index.html?lang=en (2015). Accessed 25 Sept 2017
  30. 30.
    Wellig, S.D., Nusslé, S., Miltner, D., Kohle, O., Glaizot, O., et al.: Mitigating the negative impacts of tall wind turbines on bats: Vertical activity profiles and relationships to wind speed. PLoS One. 13(3), e0192493 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192493 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Forrest, J., Robinson, C., Hommel, C., Craib, J.: Flight activity & breeding success of Hen Harrier at Paul’s Hill Wind Farm in North East Scotland. Poster presented at the Conference on Wind Energy and Wildlife Impacts, Trondheim, Norway, 2–5 May 2011,Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Endangered Species Act. 1973. 16 USC § 1531Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Migratory Bird Treaty Act. 1916. 16 USC § 1531Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act. 1972. 16 USC § 668Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stantec (Stantec Consulting Services, Inc.).: Final Buckeye Wind Power Project Habitat Conservation Plan. Edmonton, Canada (2013)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cole, S., Dahl, E.L.: Compensating white-tailed eagle mortality at the Smøla wind-power plant using electrocution prevention measures. Wildlife Soc. B. 37, 84–93 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1002/wsb.263 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Criterion Power Partners, LLC.: Indiana Bat Habitat Conservation Plan for the Criterion Wind Project, Garrett County, Maryland. Oakland, Maryland. http://www.fws.gov/chesapeakebay/endsppweb/Criterion%20docs/FINAL%20Criterion%20HCP.pdf (2014)
  38. 38.
    BLM (Bureau of Land Management).: “Instruction Memorandum No. 2010-156 – Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act – Golden Eagle National Environmental Policy Act and Avian Protection Plan Guidance for Renewable Energy.” July 9. http://www.blm.gov/wo/st/en/info/regulations/Instruction_Memos_and_Bulletins/national_instruction/2010/IM_2010-156.html (2010)
  39. 39.
    USFWS (US Fish and Wildlife Service).: Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance Module 1 – Land Based Wind Energy Version 2. (2013). http://www.fws.gov/windenergy/PDF/Eagle%20Conservation%20Plan%20Guidance-Module%201.pdf
  40. 40.
    National Environmental Protection Act. 1969. 42 USC §4321 et seqGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pearce-Higgins, J.W., Stephen, L., Douse, A., Langston, R.H.W.: Greater impacts of wind farms on bird populations during construction than subsequent operation: results of a multi-site and multi-species analysis. J. Appl. Ecol. 49, 386–394 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02110.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pacific Northwest National LaboratorySeattleUSA
  2. 2.Berlin Institute of TechnologyBerlinGermany
  3. 3.Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA)TrondheimNorway
  4. 4.Marine Scotland ScienceAberdeenUK

Personalised recommendations