Meat Production from Wild Kangaroo: The Species, Industry, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality Traits

  • Nicole B. SpiegelEmail author
  • Paul L. Greenwood


This chapter explores the kangaroo meat supply chain, from species to industry, including markets, nutritional value, and other aspects of meat quality such as field harvesting, post-slaughter processes, sensory attributes and carcass hygiene. Kangaroo meat is obtained from wild animals, with Australia’s kangaroo meat industry based on legislated, regulated harvest of the abundant kangaroo species. Kangaroo meat can be classified as a game meat, bushmeat, and/or a free-range product, and there is increasing interest in kangaroo for human consumption across the globe. The carcass of the kangaroo has a high dressing percentage (>60%) and lean red meat yield. Of its low meat fat content (<2%), there is a high proportion of polyunsaturated fats including high levels of conjugated linoleic acid. Kangaroo meat has eating quality attributes comparable to beef and sheep. Initial sensory investigations have demonstrated an opportunity for the industry to implement their own product grading scheme. These initial studies have shown that kangaroo meat, overall, is a ‘good everyday’ product. However, there is scope to build on earlier research to better manage meat quality. Meat tenderness, for instance, is highly variable in kangaroo, although identification of post-slaughter effects helps predict this variability. Likewise, developments in carcass handling techniques and chilling regimes can enable improved management of meat tenderness. Examples include “tenderstretch”, optimized muscle temperature at rigor, and ageing of boned kangaroo meat. Flavour has also been shown to be strongly associated with consumer liking of kangaroo meat. Scope exists to characterize kangaroo meat flavour components. Given that kangaroo meat is sourced from wild animals shot in the field, many challenges exist for the industry, notably standardization of carcass handling and storage conditions prior to boning. Optimizing eating quality attributes such as tenderness, through innovation in field slaughtering processes will only help to augment food safety standards. Minimal microbial contamination of carcasses remains of paramount importance for consumer confidence and viability of the industry, as does monitoring of animal health and diseases, particularly for zoonotic diseases that require close attention by government inspection services.


Kangaroo Meat quality Game meat Bushmeat Alternative protein Free-range 


  1. Ampt P, Owen K (2008) Consumer attitudes to kangaroo meat products. Report to the RIRDC, Publication No. 08/026, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrew AE (1988) Kangaroo meat - public health aspects. Aust J Zool 24:138–140Google Scholar
  3. ARMCANZ (1997) Australian standard for hygienic production of game meat for human consumption. SCARM report. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, p 57Google Scholar
  4. Arundel JH, Barker IK, Beveridge I (1977) Diseases of marsupials. In: Stonehouse B, Gilmore D (eds) The biology of marsupials. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Arya F, Egger S, Colquhoun D, Sullivan D, Pal S, Egger G (2010) Differences in postprandial inflammatory responses to a ‘modern’ v. traditional meat meal: a preliminary study. Br J Nutr 104:724–728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey AJ, Light ND (1989) Connective tissue in meat and meat products. Elsevier Science Publishers, EssexGoogle Scholar
  7. Balowski M, Sobczak M, Zochowska-Kujawska J, Pytel-Zajac O, Niedzwiedz M (2015) Comparison of meat quality of selected exotic animals species. Pisc et Zootech 322(36/4):5–13Google Scholar
  8. Bauman DE, Baumgard LH, Corl BA, Griinari JM (2000) Biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid in ruminants. J Anim Sci 77(E):1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beaton AJW, Spiegel NB, Thompson JM, Wynn PC (2004) Kangaroo total muscle collagen as influenced by carcass weight and muscle location. Proc Aust Soc Anim Prod 25:215Google Scholar
  10. Beaton AJW, Spiegel NB, Wynn PC, Thompson JM (2002) The effect of pre-rigor temperature on the ageing potential of kangaroo meat. ICoMST 48(2):752–753Google Scholar
  11. Beaton AJW, Spiegel NB, Wynn PC, Thompson JM (2001a) Improving the quality of kangaroo meat. In: Natural, environmently wise and responsible. Kangaroo Industry Association of Australia, ACTGoogle Scholar
  12. Beaton AJW, Spiegel NB, Wynn PC, Thompson JM (2001b) Improving the quality of kangaroo meat: effects of carcass suspension by one leg. AVCB Wildlife Health and Management in Australasia, AVA, pp 91–95Google Scholar
  13. Beilken S, Tume R (2008) Nutritional composition of kangaroo meat: fat content and lipid composition. Report to the RIRDC, Publication No. 08/142, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  14. Ben-Ami D (2010) Hopping meat. New Sci 208:30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bensink JC, Ekaputra I, Taliotis C (1991) The isolation of salmonella from kangaroos and feral pigs processed for human consumption. Aust Vet J 68(3):106–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boleman SJ, Boleman SL, Miller RK, Taylor JF, Cross HR, Wheeler TL, Koohmaraie M, Shackelford SD, Miller MF, West RL, Johnson DD, Savell JW (1997) Consumer evaluation of beef of known categories of tenderness. J Anim Sci 75:1521–1524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bouton PE, Fisher AL, Harris PV, Baxter RI (1973) A comparison of the effects of some post-slaughter treatments on the tenderness of beef. Food Technol 8:39–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Braddick L (2002) Market place demand for kangaroo meat consumption in Western Australia: a sustainability issue. Honours Thesis. Murdoch University, Western AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  19. Bruce HL, Scott JR, Thompson JM (2001) Application of an exponential model to early postmortem bovine muscle pH decline. Meat Sci 58:39–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bulló M, Casas-Agustench P, Amigó-Correig P, Aranceta J, Salas-Salvadó J (2007) Inflammation, obesity and comorbidities: the role of diet. Public Health Nutr 10:1164–1172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Butcher LA, O’Dea K, Sinclair AJ, Parkin JD, Smith IL, Blombery P (1990) The effects of very low fat diets enriched wih fish and kangaroo meat on cold-induced vasoconstriction and platelet function. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 39:221–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chippendale GM (1962) Botanical examination of kangaroo stomach contents and cattle rumen contents. Aust J Sci 25:21–22Google Scholar
  23. Cooney R, Baumber A, Ampt P, Wilson G (2009) Sharing skippy: how can landholders be involved in kangaroo production in Australia? Rangel J 31:283–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Corrigan P (1988) Export of kangaroo meat. Aust J Zool 24:179–180Google Scholar
  25. Davies G, Brown D (2007) Bushmeat and livelihoods: wildlife management and poverty reduction. Blackwell Publishing, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dawson TJ (2012) Kangaroos. CSIRO Publishing, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  27. Dawson TJ (1995) Kangaroos: biology of the largest marsupials. University of New South Wales Press, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  28. Dennington S, Baldwin J (1988) Biochemical correlates of energy metabolism in muscles used to power hopping by kangaroos. Aust J Zool 36:229–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Denny M (1982) Kangaroos: an historical perspective. In: Haigh C (ed) Kangaroos and other macropods of New South Wales. NPWS, Sydney, pp 36–45Google Scholar
  30. Department of Environment (2013) Kangaroo population estimates. Accessed 5 Mar 2018
  31. Department of Environment (2012) Commercial kangaroo harvesting fact sheet: Government roles in kangaroo harvesting. Accessed 5 Mar 2018
  32. Department of Environment (2008) National codes of practice (commercial and non-commercial) for the humane shooting of kangaroos and wallabies. Accessed 5 Mar 2018
  33. Doncon C (2000). Ageing increases tenderness in kangaroo meat. Thesis, University of Western Australia, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  34. Dransfield E, Ledwith MJ, Taylor AA (1991) Effect of electrical stimulation, hip suspension and ageing on quality of chilled pig meat. Meat Sci 29:129–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eglezos S, Huang B, Stuttard E (2007) A survey of the microbiological quality of kangaroo carcasses processed for human consumption in two processing plants in Queensland, Australia. J Food Prot 70(5):1249–1251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Engelke CF, Siebert BD, Gregg K, Wright A-DG, Vercoe PE (2004a) Kangaroo adipose tissue has higher concentrations of cis 9, trans 11-conjugated linoleic acid than lamb adipose tissue. J Anim Feed Sci 13(1):689–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Engelke CF, Siebert BD, Gregg K, Wright A-DG, Vercoe PE (2004b) Kangaroos have unusually high concentrations of TVA in their foregut. Gut Microbiol Symp Proc Clermont-Ferrand Theix 44(1):21–23Google Scholar
  38. Ford GL, Fogerty AC (1982) The fatty acids of kangaroo and wallaby meat. CSIRO Food Res Quat 42:57–60Google Scholar
  39. Foster M, The Agricultural Commodities Section ABARES (2014) Emerging animal and plant industries: their value to Australia. Report to the RIRDC, Publication No. 14/069, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  40. Frith HJ, Calaby JH (1969) Kangaroos. F W Cheshire Publishing Pty Ltd, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  41. Frank D, Oytam Y, & Hughes J (2017). Sensory perceptions and new consumer attitudes to meat. In: P P Purslow (Ed.), New aspects of meat quality: from genes to ethics, Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier, Duxford. Chapter 27:667–698Google Scholar
  42. Geesink GH, van de Heuvel A, Hunt W (2017) Meat quality attributes of agile wallabies. Meat Sci 133:173–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Grigg G (2017) Eating kangaroo (good) and goat (bad) for rangelands. Aust J Zool 39(1):146–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Grunert KG (2005) Food quality and safety: consumer perception and demand. Eur Rev Agric Econ 32(3):369–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Haigh C (1982) Kangaroos and other macropods of New South Wales. NPWS, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  46. Hammond J, Mansfield WS (1936) Investigations on producing quality in beef. J Ministry of Agric 42:977Google Scholar
  47. Hochachka PW, Runciman WB, Baudinette RV (1985) Why exercising tammar wallabies turn over lactate rapidly. Implications for models of mammalian exercise metabolism. Mol Phys 7:17–28Google Scholar
  48. Holds G, Pointon A, Lorimer M, Kiermeier A, Raven G, Sumner J (2008) Microbial profiles of carcasses and minced meat from kangaroos processed in South Australia. Int J Food Microbiol 123:88–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hopwood PR (1988) Kangaroos as game meat animals: carcass meat yields and meat inspection. Aust J Zool 24:169–177Google Scholar
  50. Hopwood PR, Butterfield RM (1976) The musculature of the proximal pelvic limb of the eastern grey kangaroo Macropus major (Shaw) Macropus giganteus (Zimm). J Anat 121:259–277PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Hostetler RL, Landmann WA, Link BA, Fitzhugh HA Jr (1970) Influence of carcass position during rigor mortis on tenderness of beef muscles: comparison of two treatments. J Anim Sci 31:47–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hume ID (1982) Digestive physiology and nutrition of marsupials. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  53. Hume ID (1999) Marsupial nutrition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  54. Hunt W, Mullen J (2015) The feasibility of commercially harvesting agile wallabies in the Northern Territory. Report to the RIRDC, PRJ – 009989, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  55. Hunter J (1968) An historical journey of events at Sydney and at sea. Sydney, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, pp 1787–1792Google Scholar
  56. Jarman PJ (1989) Sexual dimorphism in Macropodoidea. In: Grigg G, Jarman PJ, Hume I (eds) Kangaroos, wallabies and rat-kangaroos. Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping NortonGoogle Scholar
  57. Judge MD, Aberle ED, Forrest JC, Hedrick HB, Merkel RA (1989) Principles of meat science. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, DubuqueGoogle Scholar
  58. Kelly J (2011) California, New York, the World and Kangaroos. Report to the RIRDC, Publication No. 10/220, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  59. Khanal RC (2004) Potential health benefits of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA): a review. Asian Australas J Anim Sci 17:1315–1328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Koohmaraie M, Geesink GH (2006) Contribution of postmortem muscle biochemistry to the delivery of consistent meat quality with particular focus on the calpain system. Meat Sci 74:34–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Koohmaraie M, Kent MP, Shackelford SD, Veiseth E, Wheeler TL (2002) Meat tenderness and muscle growth: is there any relationship. Meat Sci 62:345–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Koohmaraie M, Seideman SC, Schollmeyer JE, Dutson TR, Crouse JD (1987) Effect of post-mortem storgae on Ca++−dependent proteases, their inihibitor and myofibril fragmentation. Meat Sci 19:187–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kyle R (1987) A feast in the wild. KUDU Publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  64. Ladds P (2009) Pathology of Australian native wildlife. CSIRO Publishing, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  65. Langer P (1988) The mammalian herbivore stomach: comparative anatomy, function and evolution. Gustav Fischer Verlag, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  66. Larsen TM, Toubro S, Astrup A (2003) Efficacy and safety of dietary supplements containing CLA for the treatment of obesity: evidence from animal and human studies. J Lipid Res 44:2234–2241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lavery HJ (1985) Biology for management. In: Lavery HJ (ed) The kangaroo keepers. University of Queensland Press, St LuciaGoogle Scholar
  68. Lawrie RA (2006) Lawrie’s meat science. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lawrie RA (1998) Lawrie’s meat science, 6th edn. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  70. Liu L, Howe P, Zhou YF, Xu ZQ, Hocart C, Zhan R (2000) Fatty acids and beta-carotene in Australian purslane (Portulaca oleracea) varieties. J Chromatogr A 893(1):207–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lorenzo JM, Sarriés MV, Tateo A, Polidori P, Franco D, Lanza M (2014) Carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of horsemeat: a review. Meat Sci 96:1478–1488PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Lunney D (1988) The Grigg proposal for kangaroo harvesting as an economic carrot for the restoration of the arid and semi-arid lands of Australia: presidential viewpoint. Aust J Zool 24(3):122–123Google Scholar
  73. MacFarlane JD (1971) Exports of kangaroo meat. Aust J Zool 16:62–64Google Scholar
  74. Marshall T, McIntyre BL (1989) A preliminary evaluation of the eating quality of meat derived from red Kanagroos. Aust J Zool 25:88–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McVeigh JM, Tarrant PV (1982) J Nutr 122:1306–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Miller JB, Mann N, Cordain L (2009) Paleolithic nutrition: what did our ancestors eat? Accessed 10 Mar 2018
  77. Muir K (2007) An indigenous Australian perspective on marsupials: the red kangaroo – Marlu. In: Dickman C (ed) A fragile balance: the extraordinary story of the Australian marsupials. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  78. Mulligan M (1995) Processing of exotic meats. A paper presented by Southern Game Meat Pty Ltd to Meat ’95 in Kangaroo Industry Commercial Practices, Macarthur Consulting Pty Ltd, 1997Google Scholar
  79. Munn AJ, Dawson TJ, McLeod SR (2010) Feeding biology of two functionally different foregut-fermenting mammals, the marsupial red kangaroo and the ruminant sheep: how physiological ecology can inform land management. Aust J Zool 282:226–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Muzari MO, Skerratt LF, Jones RE, Duran TL (2010) Alighting and feeding behaviour of tabanid flies on horses, kangaroos and pigs. J Vet Parasitol 170:104–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mykytowycz R (1964) A survey of the endoparasites of the red kangaroo Megaleia rufa (Demarest). Parasitology 54:677–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Newsome T, Newsome A (2016) The red kangaroo in Central Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Clayton SouthGoogle Scholar
  83. O’Dea K (1988) Kangaroo meat – polyunsaturated and low in fat: ideal for cholesterol-lowering diets. Aust J Zool 24(3):140–143Google Scholar
  84. Paleari MA, Camisasca S, Beretta G, Renon P, Corsico P, Bertolo G, Crivelli G (1998) Ostrich meat; physico-chemical characteristics and comparison with Turkey and bovine meat. Meat Sci 48:205–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Parrish FC Jr (1977) Skeletal muscle tissue disruption. Recip Meat Conf Annu Proc 36:87–98Google Scholar
  86. Perry D, Thompson JM, Hwang IH, Butchers A, Egan AF (2001) Relationship between objective measurements and taste panel assessment of beef quality. Aust J Exp Agric 41:981–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Poole WE (1975) Reproduction in the two species of grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus Shaw and M. fuliginosus (Desmarest). II. Gestation, parturition and pouch life. Aust J Zool 22:277–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pople T, Grigg G (1999) Commercial harvesting of kangaroos in Australia. Accessed 5 Mar 2018
  89. Priddel D (1987) The mobility and habitat utilisation of kangaroos. In: Caughley G, Shepherd N, Short J (eds) Kangaroos: their ecology and management in the sheep rangelands of Australia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  90. Prince RIT (1976) Comparative studies of aspects of nutritional and related physiology in macropod marsupials. PhD thesis. University of Western Australia, PerthGoogle Scholar
  91. Purchas RW, Keohane BE (1997) Sources of variation in the ultimate pH of M. longissimus from prime steers. Proc N Z Soc Anim Prod 57:271Google Scholar
  92. Purslow PP (2017) What is meat quality? In: Purslow PP (ed) New aspects of meat quality: from genes to ethics. Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier, Duxford, pp 1–2Google Scholar
  93. Ramsbottom JM, Strandine EI (1948) Comparative tenderness and identification of muscles in wholesale beef cuts. Food Res 13:315–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ranieri SM, Snowden JM, Roberts DW (1985) Characterisation of collagenous tissue of pigs to improve yield and meat quality. Animal Products Technology, Division of Animal Production, Western Australian Department of AgricultureGoogle Scholar
  95. Richardson K (2012) Australia’s amazing kanagroos: their conservation, unique biology and coexistence with humans. CSIRO Publishing, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  96. RIRDC (1998) Kangaroo specifications and selected meat cuts. Rural Industries Reseach & Development Corporation of the Australian Government 1st edn., AUS-MEATGoogle Scholar
  97. Rudd S (1953) On our selection and our new selection. Angus & Robertson, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  98. Sales J (1995) Nutritional quality of meat from some alternative species. World Rev Anim Prod 30(1–2):47–56Google Scholar
  99. Sales J, Dingle JG (1998) Kangaroos: an alternative meat source. Food Aust 50:531–534Google Scholar
  100. Schmid A, Collomb M, Sieber R, Bee G (2006) Conjugated linoleic acid in meat and meat products: a review. Meat Sci 73:29–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Shepherd NC (1983) The feasibility of farming kangaroos. Rangel J 5(1):35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Shepherd N, Caughley G (1987) Options for management of kangaroos. In: Caughley G, Shepherd N, Short J (eds) Kangaroos, their ecology and management in the sheep rangelands of Australia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  103. Shorthose WR (1980) III Nacional de Ciencia y Technologia Carnes, Buenos Aires, November 1980Google Scholar
  104. Shorthose WR, Harris PV (1990) Effect of animal age on tenderness of selected beef muscles. J Food Sci 55(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Shul’gin RY, Prikhod’ko YV, Shul’gin YP (2015) Kangaroo meat as a valuable raw material for dietary products. Biosci Biotechnol Res Asia 12(1):333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Simopoulos AP, Norman HA, Gillaspy JE (1995) Purslane in human nutrition and its potential for world agriculture. World Rev Nutr Diet 77:47–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sinclair AJ, O’Dea K, Dunstan G, Ireland PD, Niall M (1987) Effects on plasma lipids and fatty acid composition of very low fat diets enriched with fish or kangaroo meat. Lipids 22:523–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sinclair AJ, Slattery WJ, O’Dea K (1982) The analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in meat by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. J Sci Food Agric 33:771–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Speare R, Donovan JA, Thomas AD, Speare PJ (1989) Diseases of free-ranging Macropodidae. In: Grigg G, Jarman P, Hume I (eds) Kangaroos, wallabies and rat-kangaroos. Surrey Beatty & Sons, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  110. Spiegel NB (2008) Factors influencing the quality of meat from kangaroos. PhD thesis. The University of Sydney, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  111. Spiegel NB, Beaton AJW (2004) Developing a successful career in science: a postgraduate’s perspective. Anim Prod in Aust 25:392–399Google Scholar
  112. Spiegel NB, Wynn PC (2014) Promoting kangaroo as a sustainable option for meat production on the rangelands of Australia. Anim Front 4(4):38–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Spiegel NB, Johns WH, Sinclair SD, Wynn PC, Thompson JM, Greenwood PL (2010a) Eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) myofibres. 1. A simplified classification method using two commercially available antibodies. Anim Prod Sci 50:386–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Spiegel NB, Wynn PC, Thompson JM, Greenwood PL (2010b) Eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) myofibres: 2. Characteristics of eight skeletal muscles. Anim Prod Sci 50:393–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Spratt DM (1972) Aspects of the life-history of Dirofilaria roemeri in naturally and experimentally infected kangaroos, wallaroos and wallabies. Int J Parasitol 2:139–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Spratt DM (1975) Further studies of Dirofilaria roemeri (nematoda: filarioidea) in naturally and experimentally infected macropodidae. Int J Parasitol 5:561–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Stevens CE, Hume ID (1995) Comparative physiology of the vertebrate digestive system, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  118. Tarrant PV (1989) Animal behaviour and environment in the dark-cutting condition in beef. A review. Ir J Food Sci Technol 13:1–21Google Scholar
  119. Thompson JM (2002) Mangaing meat tenderness. Meat Sci 62:295–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Thompson JM (2004) The effects of marbling on flavour and juiciness scores of cooked beef, after adjusting to a constant tenderness. Aust J Exp Agric 44:645–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Thompson JM, Gee A, Hopkins DL, Pethick DW, Baud SR, O’Halloran WJO (2005a) Development of a sensory protocol for testing palatability of sheep meats. Aust J Exp Agric 45:469–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Thompson JM, Pleasants AB, Pethick DW (2005b) The effect of design and demographic factors on consumer sensory scores. Aust J Exp Agric 45:477–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Thomsen DA, Davies J (2005) Social and cultural dimensions of commercial kangaroo harvest in South Australia. Aust J Exp Agric 45:1239–1243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tribe DE, Peel L (1963) Body composition of the kangaroo (Macropus sp.). Aust J Zool 11:273–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tunbridge D (1991) The story of the Flinders ranges mammals. Kangaroo Press, KenthurstGoogle Scholar
  126. Tunbridge D (1988) Flinders ranges dreaming. Aboriginal Studies Press, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  127. Van Huis A (2017). New sources of animal proteins: edible insects. In: P P Purslow (Ed.), New aspects of meat quality: from genes to ethics, Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier, Duxford Chapter 17:443–461Google Scholar
  128. Veiseth E, Shackelford SD, Wheeler TL, Koohmaraie M (2004) Factors regulating lamb longissimus tenderness are affected by age at slaughter. Meat Sci 68:635–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Warriss PD (2000) Meat science: an introductory text. CABI Publishing, BristolGoogle Scholar
  130. Watkinson BM, Kütemeyer C, Reinhold T, Werlein HD (2004) Game meat – an alternative to beef? Fleischwirtschaft 84(3):53–57Google Scholar
  131. Watson R, Gee A, Polkinghorne R, Rooke M (2008a) Consumer assessment of eating quality - development of protocols for meat standards Australia (MSA) testing. Aust J Exp Agric 48:1360–1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Watson R, Polkinghorne R, Thompson JM (2008b) Development of the meat standards Australia (MSA) prediction model for beef palatability. Aust J Exp Agric 48:1368–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Webley LS, Beveridge I, Coulson G (2004) Endoparasites of an insular subspecies of the western grey kangaroo, Macropus fuliginosus. Aust J Zool 52:623–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wilson GR, Edwards MJ (2008) Native wildlife on rangelands to minimise methane and produce lower-emission meat: kangaroos versus livestock. Conserv Lett 1:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Worgan GB (1978) Journal of a first fleet surgeon. The Library Council of NSW in association with the library of Australian History, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  136. Wynn PC, Beaton AJW, Spiegel NB (2004) Meat quality of kangaroos. Report to the RIRDC Publication No. 04/151, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  137. Zhong WWH, Lucas CA, Kang LHD, Hoh JFY (2001) Electrophoretic and immunochemical evidence showing that marsupial limb muscles express the same fast and slow myosin heavy chains as eutherians. Electrophoresis 22:1016–1020PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Zukerman W (2010) Eating skippy. New Sci 208:42–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Queensland Government, Agri-Science, Department of Agriculture and FisheriesCharters TowersAustralia
  2. 2.NSW Department of Primary Industries, Armidale Livestock Industries CentreUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia

Personalised recommendations