Skip to main content

Social Stratification from Networks of Leveling Ties

Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI,volume 813)

Abstract

Social networks can be made of various kinds of ties, but (often implicit) assumptions embodied in network-analytic tools do not necessarily apply to all of them. Centrality indices, for instance, build on the assumption that it is always beneficial to add more ties. While it has been noted that networks of ties with a negative sentiment require different concepts of centrality, we here highlight ties that are neither positive nor negative to have, but an indication of commonality. This is exemplified by the derivation of socio-economic status from networks that indicate common class membership.

Keywords

  • Social stratification
  • Centrality
  • Leveling ties
  • Interval graphs

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-05414-4_36
  • Chapter length: 13 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   229.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-05414-4
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1.

reprinted from [30].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.

Notes

  1. 1.

    Data obtained from https://usa.ipums.org/usa/ [32].

  2. 2.

    More advanced versions also employ Goodman’s Class of RC-II Association Models.

  3. 3.

    Occupational codes retrieved from https://usa.ipums.org/usa/volii/occ2000.shtml.

  4. 4.

    Retrieved from http://www.camsis.stir.ac.uk/Data/USA.html.

References

  1. Atkins, J., Boman, E., Hendrickson, B.: A spectral algorithm for seriation and the consecutive ones problem. SIAM J. Comput. 28(1), 297–310 (1998)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  2. Borgatti, S.P., Mehra, A., Brass, D.J., Labianca, G.: Network analysis in the social sciences. Science 323(5916), 892–895 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Cartwright, D., Harary, F.: Structural balance: a generalization of heider’s theory. Psychol. Rev. 63(5), 277 (1956)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Cattin, M.F., Bersier, L.F., Banašek-Richter, C., Baltensperger, R., Gabriel, J.P.: Phylogenetic constraints and adaptation explain food-web structure. Nature 427(6977), 835–839 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Cohen, J.E.: Food webs and niche space. Monogr. Popul. Biol. 11, 1–189 (1978)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Connelly, R., Gayle, V., Lambert, P.S.: A review of occupation-based social classifications for social survey research. Methodol. Innov. 9, 2059799116638,003 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Domínguez-García, V., Johnson, S., Muñoz, M.A.: Intervality and coherence in complex networks. Chaos Interdiscip. J. Nonlinear Sci. 26(6), 065,308 (2016)

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  8. Erikson, R., Goldthorpe, J.H., Portocarero, L.: Intergenerational class mobility in three western european societies: England, France and Sweden. Br. J. Sociol. 30(4), 415–441 (1979)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Fishburn, P.C.: Interval graphs and interval orders. Discret. Math. 55(2), 135–149 (1985)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  10. Freeman, L.C.: A set of measures of centrality based on betweenness. Sociometry 40(1), 35–41 (1977)

    Google Scholar 

  11. Freeman, L.C.: Spheres, cubes and boxes: graph dimensionality and network structure. Soc. Netw. 5(2), 139–156 (1983)

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  12. Freeman, L.C.: Boxicity and the social context of Swedish literary criticism, 1881–1883. J. Soc. Biol. Struct. 9(2), 141–149 (1986)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Fulkerson, D., Gross, O.: Incidence matrices and interval graphs. Pac. J. Math. 15(3), 835–855 (1965)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  14. Ganzeboom, H.B.G., De Graaf, P.M., Treiman, D.J.: A standard international socio-economic index of occupational status. Soc. Sci. Res. 21(1), 1–56 (1992)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Garey, M.R., Johnson, D.S.: Computers and Intractability. WH Freeman, New York (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  16. Goldberg, P.W., Golumbic, M.C., Kaplan, H., Shamir, R.: Four strikes against physical mapping of DNA. J. Comput. Biol. 2(1), 139–152 (1995)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Goldthorpe, J.H., Llewellyn, C., Payne, C.: Social Mobility and Class Structure in Modern Britain. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1980)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Golumbic, M.C., Shamir, R.: Complexity and algorithms for reasoning about time: a graph-theoretic approach. J. ACM 40(5), 1108–1133 (1993)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  19. Griffiths, D., Lambert, P.S.: Dimensions and boundaries: comparative analysis of occupational structures using social network and social interaction distance analysis. Sociol. Res. Online 17(2), 5 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  20. Habib, M., McConnell, R., Paul, C., Viennot, L.: Lex-BFS and partition refinement, with applications to transitive orientation, interval graph recognition and consecutive ones testing. Theor. Comput. Sci. 234(1), 59–84 (2000)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  21. Heider, F.: Attitudes and cognitive organization. J. Psychol. 21(1), 107–112 (1946)

    Google Scholar 

  22. Kratochvil, J.: A special planar satisfiability problem and a consequence of its NP-completeness. Discret. Appl. Math. 52(3), 233–252 (1994)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  23. Lambert, P.S., Bihagen, E.: Stratification research and occupation-based social classifications. Social Stratification: Trends and Processes, pp. 113–128. Ashgate, Farnham (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  24. Laumann, E.O.: Subjective social distance and urban occupational stratification. Am. J. Sociol. 71(1), 26–36 (1965)

    Google Scholar 

  25. Laumann, E.O., Guttman, L.: The relative associational contiguity of occupations in an urban setting. Am. Sociol. Rev. 31(2), 169–178 (1966)

    Google Scholar 

  26. Mitchell, J.C., Critchley, F.: Configurational similarity in three class contexts in british society. Sociology 19(1), 72–92 (1985)

    Google Scholar 

  27. Prandy, K., Lambert, P.S.: Marriage, social distance and the social space: an alternative derivation and validation of the cambridge scale. Sociology 37(3), 397–411 (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  28. Quest, M., Wegner, G.: Characterization of the graphs with boxicity \(\leqslant \)2. Discret. Math. 81(2), 187–192 (1990)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  29. Roberts, F.S.: On the boxicity and cubicity of a graph. Recent Progress in Combinatorics, pp. 301–310. Academic Press, Cambridge (1969)

    Google Scholar 

  30. Roberts, F.S.: Graph Theory and Its Applications to Problems of Society. SIAM, Philadelphia (1978)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  31. Rosengren, K.: The Climate of Literature: Sweden’s Literary Frume of Reference, 1953–1976. Studentlitteratur, Lund (1983)

    Google Scholar 

  32. Ruggles, S., Genadek, K., Goeken, R., Grover, J., Sobek, M.: Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 7.0 [dataset]. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  33. Sabidussi, G.: The centrality index of a graph. Psychometrika 31(4), 581–603 (1966)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  34. Schoch, D., Brandes, U.: Re-conceptualizing centrality in social networks. Eur. J. Appl. Math. 27(6), 971–985 (2016)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  35. Stewart, A., Prandy, K., Blackburn, R.M.: Measuring the class structure. Nature 245(5426), 415–417 (1973)

    Google Scholar 

  36. Stewart, A., Prandy, K., Blackburn, R.M.: Social Stratification and Occupations. Springer, Berlin (1980)

    Google Scholar 

  37. Stouffer, D.B., Camacho, J., Amaral, L.A.N.: A robust measure of food web intervality. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 103(50), 19015–19020 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  38. Treiman, D.J.: Occupational Prestige in Comparative Perspective. Academic Press, New York (1977)

    Google Scholar 

  39. Wasserman, S., Faust, K.: Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1994)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to David Schoch .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Schoch, D., Brandes, U. (2019). Social Stratification from Networks of Leveling Ties. In: Aiello, L., Cherifi, C., Cherifi, H., Lambiotte, R., Lió, P., Rocha, L. (eds) Complex Networks and Their Applications VII. COMPLEX NETWORKS 2018. Studies in Computational Intelligence, vol 813. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05414-4_36

Download citation