New Hydraulic Components for Tough Robots

Part of the Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics book series (STAR, volume 128)


Hydraulic components have tremendous potential for realizing “tough robots” owing to their “tough features,” including high power density and shock resistance, although their practical robotic usage faces some challenges. This chapter explains a series of studies on hydraulic robot components, focusing on high output density, large generative force, shock resistance, and environmental resistance to investigate reducing size, increasing intelligence, lowering weight, achieving multiple degrees of freedom, and lowering sliding friction. The studies are based on past hydraulics technologies with the aim of permitting hydraulic actuator technologies to take important roles in achieving tough robots to operate at disaster sites and under other extreme environments. The studies consist of research and development of compact, lightweight, and high-output actuators; rotating high-torque motors; low-sliding cylinders and motors; power packs; high-output McKibben artificial muscles; particle-excitation-type control valves; hybrid boosters; and hydraulic control systems to be undertaken along with research on their application to tough robots.



This research was funded by ImPACT Tough Robotics Challenge Program of Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (Cabinet Office, Government of Japan). The authors thank Yuken Kogyo Co., Ltd., KYOEI INDUSTRIES.CO., LTD., Pneumatic Servo Controls LTD., KAWAMOTO HEAVY INDUSTRIES co., ltd., MARUZEN KOGYO CO., LTD., ONO-DENKI CO., LTD., Weltec-sha Inc. Ltd., Hydraulic Robots Research Committee, Tokyo Keiki Inc., Fine Sinter Corp., Takako Inc., and Mori Kogyo, Ltd. for their support.


  1. 1.
    Fujita, S., Baba, K., Sudoh, D.: RESCUE ROBOT ‘T-52 ENRYU’. In: International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction, Tokyo, Japan (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hashimoto, K., Kimura, S., Sakai, N., Hamamoto, S., Koizumi, A., Sun, X., Matsuzawa, T., Teramachi, T., Yoshida, Y., Imai, A., et al.: WAREC-1-a four-limbed robot having high locomotion ability with versatility in locomotion styles, in 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security and Rescue Robotics (SSRR 2017), pp. 172–178 (2017)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hirooka, D., Suzumori, K., Kanda, T.: Flow control valve for pneumatic actuators using parti-cle excitation by PZT vibrator. Sens. Actuators A Phys. 155, 285–289 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hirooka, D., Suzumori, K., Kanda, T.: Design and evaluation of orifice arrangement for parti-cle-excitation flow control valve. Sens. Actuators A Phys. 171, 283–291 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hirooka D., Yamaguchi T., Furushiro N., Suzumor K., Kanda T.: Research on controllability of the particle excitation flow control valve. In: Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Manufacturing, Machine Design and Tribology, pp. 136–137 (2015)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hirooka D., Yamaguchi T., Furushiro N., Suzumor K., Kanda T.: Highly responsive and stable flow control valve using a PZT transducer. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 6H-6 (2016)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hirooka, D., Yamaguchi, T., Furushiro, N., Suzumor, K., Kanda, T.: Particle-excitation flow-control valve using piezo vibration-improvement for a high flow rate and research on controllability. IEEJ Trans. Sens. Micromachines 137, 32–37 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hyon, S., Mori, Y., Mizui, H.: Hydraulic drive circuit. US Patent 9458864 (PCT/JP2013/069900) (2016)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hyon, S., Tanimoto, S.: Joint torque control of a hydraulic manipulator with a hybrid servo booster. In: The Tenth JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power, 1C11 (2017)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hyon, S., Tanimoto, S., Asao, S.: Toward compliant, fast, high-precision, and low-cost manipulator with Hydraulic Hybrid Servo Booster. In: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Singapore, 30 May, pp. 39–44 (2017)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hyon, S.: A motor control strategy with virtual musculoskeletal systems for compliant anthropomorphic robots. IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 14(6), 677–688 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ishii, A.: Operation system of a double-front work machine for simultaneous operation. In: International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction, Tokyo, Japan (2006)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jansson, A., Palmberg, J.: Separate controls of meter-in and meter-out orifices in mobile hydraulic systems. SAE Trans. 99(2), 377–383 (1990)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    JPN Miniature Hydraulic Cylinders.
  15. 15.
    Kaminaga, H., Otsuki, S., Nakamura, Y.: Development of high-power and backdrivable linear electro-hydrostatic actuator. In: IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, pp. 973–978 (2014)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kanda T., Osaki H., Seno N., Wakimoto S., Ukida T., Suzumori K., Nabae H.: A small three-way hydraulic valve using particle excitation controlled by one piezoelectric transducer. In: Proceedings of 16th International Conference on New Actuators, pp. 442–445 (2018)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kuribayashi, K.: Criteria for evaluation of new robot actuators as energy converters. J. RSJ 7(5), 35–43 (1998)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
    Mori, M., Tanaka, J., Suzumori, K., Kanda, T.: Field test for verifying the capability of two high-powered hydraulic small robots for rescue operations. In: IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 3492–3497 (2006)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mori, M., Suzumori, K., Seita, S., Takahashi, M., Hosoya, T., Kusumoto, K.: Development of very high force hydraulic McKibben artificial muscle and its application to shape-adaptable power hand. In: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, pp. 1457–1462 (2009)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morita, R., Nabae, H., Suzumori, K., Yamamoto, A., Sakurai, R.: Development of hydraulic McKibben artificial muscle. In: The 34th Annual Conference of the Robotic Society of Japan, Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of RSJ, RSJ2016AC3C3-01 (2016)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Morita, R., Suzumori, K., Nabae, H., Endo, G., Sakurai, R.: Concrete chipping by antagonistic drive of hydraulic artificial muscles. In: Proceedings of the Robotics and Mechatronics Conference 2017 (2017)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Morita, R., Nabae, H., Endo, G., Suzumori, K.: A proposal of a new rotational-compliant joint with oil-hydraulic McKibben artificial muscles. Advanced Robotics, vol. 32, pp. 511–523. Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton (2018)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Morita, R., Nabae, H., Endo, G., Suzumori, K.: 3 DoF wrist mechanism for tough robots by hydraulic artificial muscles. In: Proceedings of the Robotics and Mechatronics Conference 2017 (2018)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nabae, H., Hemmi, M., Hirota, Y., Ide, T., Suzumori, K., Endo, G.: Super-low friction and lightweight hydraulic cylinder using multi-directional forging magnesium alloy and its application to robotic leg. Adv. Robot. 32(9), 524–534 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Opdenbosch, P., Sadegh, N., Book, W,. Enes, A.: Auto-calibration based control for independent metering of hydraulic actuators. In: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 153–158 (2011)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Osaki, H., Kanda, T., Ofuji, S., Seno, N., Suzumori, K., Ukida, T., Nabae, H.: A small three-way valve using particle excitation with piezoelectric for hydraulic actuators. Adv. Robot. 32, 500–510 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Raibert, M., Blankespoor, K., Nelson, G., Playter, R.: Bigdog, the rough-terrain quadruped robot, In: Proceedings of 17th World Congress The International Federation of Automatic Control, Seoul, Korea (2008)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rydberg, K.: Energy efficient hydraulic hybrid drives. In: 11th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power (SICFP’09), Linköping, Sweden (2009)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schulte, H.F.: The Characteristics of the McKibben Artificial Muscle. The Application of External Power in Prosthetics and Orthotics (Appendix H). National Academy of Sciences, vol. 874, pp. 94–115. National Research Council, Washington D.C. (1961)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stecki, J., Matheson, P.: Advances in automotive hydraulic hybrid drives. In: Sixth JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power, Tsukuba, Japan, pp. 664–669 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Suzumori, K., Faudzi, A.A.: Trends in hydraulic actuators and components in legged and tough robots: a review. Adv. Robot. 32(9), 458–476 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tanaka, J., Suzumori, K., Takata, M., Kanda, T., Mori, M.: A mobile jack robot for rescue operation. In: Security and Rescue Robotics (SSRR2005), pp. 99–104 (2005)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tatsumi M., Izusawa K., Hirai S.: Miniaturized unconstrained valves with pressure control for driving a robot finger. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, pp. 1528–1533 (2011)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ukida, T., Suzumori, K., Nabae, H., Kanda, T., Ofuji S.: A small water flow control valve using particle excitation by PZT vibrator. In: Proceedings of 6th ICAM, pp. 221–222 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ukida, T., Suzumori, K., Nabae, H., Kanda, T., Ofuji, S.: Hydraulic control by flow control valve using particle excitation. JFPS Int. J. Fluid Power Syst. 10, 38–46 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ukida T., Suzumori K., Nabae H., Kanda T.: Analysis of flow control valve in hydraulic system using particle excitation. In: Proceedings of The 10th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power, 2C12 (2017)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yao, B., Liu, S.: Energy-saving control of hydraulic systems with novel programmable valves. In: 4th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, Shanghai, pp. 3219–3223 (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Bridgestone CorporationTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Okayama UniversityOkayamaJapan
  4. 4.Ritsumeikan UniversityKyotoJapan
  5. 5.JPN Co., Ltd.TokyoJapan
  6. 6.KYB Co., Ltd.TokyoJapan
  7. 7.Tohoku UniversitySendaiJapan

Personalised recommendations