Poland Syndrome Remodeling by CAD Silicone Custom-Made Implants



Poland syndrome is associated with varying degrees of thoracic abnormalities and malformations of the upper limbs. The pathognomonic anomaly is agenesis of the sternocostal fibers of the pectoralis major [1]. Breast asymmetry occurs frequently in women [2] but the rate of hand malformations varies widely [3]. Poland syndrome is a rare malformation, as the incidence is estimated at only 1 per 30,000 births [4]. There appears to be a male predominance (3:1), and the majority of studies attest to lateralization of Poland syndrome on the right side. The etiology of the syndrome remains unknown but a vascular origin, as supported by Bavinck and Weaver [5], could explain the existence of associated syndromes (pectus, tuberous breasts).

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plastic Surgery DepartmentRangueil Hospital, Toulouse University HospitalToulouseFrance
  2. 2.AnatomikModelingToulouseFrance

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