Economic Growth and Levels of Living

  • Wolfgang GlatzerEmail author
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Well-Being and Quality of Life Research book series (BRIEFSWELLBEING)


After some millennia of relative economic stagnation, an increasing living standard was enabled since the nineteenth century by the success of industrialization. Economic growth was different by countries but has been improving the living standard in all countries. But after two centuries of economic progress in Europe, the over-optimistic material aspirations of the past were not fulfilled. Despite increasing income levels, there remained a severe burden from poverty, as defined by experts, and of subjectively felt scarcity, as ordinary people define their economic situation. Above economic growth was joined by ecological and climate threats. People in the European Union, especially the younger ones, have to worry about their future life chances.


  1. Atkinson, T. (1998). Poverty in Europe. Oxford: Blackwell Publisher.Google Scholar
  2. Bell, D. (1973). The coming of post-industrial society. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  3. De Jong, H. (2015). Living standards in a modernizing world. In W. Glatzer, L. Camfield, V. Moller, & M. Rojas (Eds.), (2015). Global handbook of quality of life. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  4. Eurofound. (2018). European Union (2017). European Quality of Life survey 2016. Dublin.Google Scholar
  5. Flora, P., Kraus, F., & Pfenning, W. (1987). State, economy and society 1815–1975. A data handbook, Vol. II: The growth of industrial societies and capitalist economies. Frankfurt, Campus/London, Macmillan/Chicago, St. James. Google Scholar
  6. Maddison, A. (2001). The world economy. Paris, OECD: A Millennial Perspective.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Olson, M. (1982). The rise and decline of nations: Economic growth, Stagflation and Social Rigidities. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Van Zanden, J., et al. (Eds.). (2014). How was life? Global well-being since 1820. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  9. World Bank. (2010). The changing wealth of nations. Washington DC: The World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Social SciencesGoethe UniversityFrankfurt am MainGermany

Personalised recommendations