Long-Term State- and Nation-Building in Europe
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Beginning of Europe modern state structures can be recognized in the past millennium. Some kingdoms existing already around 1000 CE are now modern nation-states. State- and nation-building were a long-term process in which national-state were formed with clear boundaries, uniform administration, defined citizen rights and so on. It took the time into the 1950s to build from the isolated national state the supranational unit of the European Union. The process of state- and nation-building did not aim at homogenous states which offer a similar level of well-being to its citizens. Europeans attained rather high levels of well-being in global comparisons. Heterogeneity is found in all the national measures from the economic accounts (GDP), satisfaction with life (SWL), Human Development Index (HDI) and social progress (WISP). The leading question is if Europe can be described as a continent of variety or a continent of inequality.
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