Fairweather Friends? Canada–United States Environmental Relations in the Days of Trump and the Era of Climate Change
- 384 Downloads
The Trump administration has certainly marked a radical departure in some (though not all) of the policy orientations familiar to observers of the U.S.–Canada relationship. An increasingly important question, then, is whether this relationship, on the whole cordial if viewed from within the limited prism of government-to-government relations, will become increasingly strained as climate change takes a greater physical, financial, and emotional toll on the continent. Is the unique relationship as resilient as preceding decades of cooperation and collaboration would suggest, or is its fragility gradually increasing as we become more aware of, and yet proceed to take limited steps to mitigate, the impact of climate change? Looking beyond the currently heated Ottawa–Washington dynamic, most of the policy collaboration shared by the two countries has been taking shape at the subnational level, especially in fields related to biodiversity conservation, migratory species, resource sharing, water management, and other areas. Even these relationships will be tested by the waters to come.
- Austen, Ian. 2018. “Canadian Court Halts Expansion of Trans Mountain Oil Pipeline.” New York Times, August 30. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/30/world/canada/alberta-oil-pipeline-trudeau.html.
- Bow, Brian. 2009. The Politics of Linkage: Power, Interdependence and Ideas in Canada-U.S. Relations. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
- Cicin-Sain, Biliana, David L. Vanderzwaag, and Miriam Balgos, eds. 2015. Routledge Handbook of National and Regional Oceans Policies. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Clarkson, Stephen. 2002. Uncle Sam and Us: Globalization, Neoconservatism, and the Canadian State. University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
- Eilpein, Juliet. 2017. “Trump Administration Renews Mining Leases Near Minnesota’s Boundary Waters Canoe Area.” Chicago Tribune, December 23. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/midwest/ct-minnesota-boundary-waters-mining-20171223-story.html.
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2018. “Nutrient Pollution: Harmful Algal Blooms.” EPA website page. https://www.epa.gov/nutrientpollution/harmful-algal-blooms.
- Healy, Robert G., Debora VanNijnatten, and Marcelo Lopez-Vallejo. 2014. Environmental Policy in North America: Approaches, Capacity, and the Management of Transboundary Issues. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
- Jinnah, Sikina, and Abby Lindsay. 2018. “Navigating Overlap Management Under NAFTA: The Role of the CEC Secretariat.” In Towards Continental Environmental Policy? North American Transnational Networks and Governanceed, edited by Owen Temby and Peter Stoett, 31–50. New York: SUNY Press. Google Scholar
- LePrestre, P. and P. Stoett, eds. 2006. Bilateral Ecopolitics: Continuity and Change in Canadian-American Environmental Relations. London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2016. “What We Do. Harmful Algal Blooms: Tiny Plants with a Toxic Punch.” http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/hazards/hab/. Accessed September 7, 2016.
- Norman, Emma S., Alice Cohen, and Karen Bakker, eds. 2013. Water Without Borders?: Canada, the United States and Shared Waters. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Google Scholar
- North American Invasive Species Network (NAISN). 2016. “Directory of Invasive Species Organizations in North America.” www.naisn.org. Accessed September 2, 2016.
- Olive, Andrea. 2014. Land, Stewardship, and Legitimacy: Endangered Species Policy in Canada and the United States. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
- Poloczanska, Elvira S., Christopher J. Brown, William J. Sydeman, Wolfgang Kiessling, David S. Schoeman, Pippa J. Moore, Keith Brander, John F. Bruno, Lauren B. Buckley, Michael T. Burrows, Carlos M. Duarte, Benjamin S. Halpern, Johnna Holding, Carrie V. Kappel, Mary I. O’Connor, John M. Pandolfi, Camille Parmesan, Franklin Schwing, Sarah Ann Thompson, and Anthony J. Richardson. 2013. “Global Imprint of Climate Change on Marine Life.” Nature Climate Change 3: 919–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rupe, Blake R. 2014. “Domestic and International Environmental Policy in Mexico: Compounding Issues for the Marine Environment.” Master of Arts (MA) thesis, University of Iowa, Iowa. http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/4741. Accessed September 7, 2016.
- Slaughter, Anne-Marie, and Thomas Hale. 2010. “Transgovernmental Networks and Multi-level Governance.” In Handbook on Multi-level Governance, edited by Henrik Enderlien, Sonja Walti, and Michael Zurn, 358–369. Cheltenham: Edward Elger.Google Scholar
- Stoett, Peter. 2016. “People and Plastic: The Oceans Plastic Crisis, Global Governance, and Development Norms.” Presented to the 2016 Annual Meeting of the Academic Council on the United Nations System, Fordham University, New York City, June 18. http://acuns.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/05/ACUNS2016Stoett.pdf. Accessed August 20, 2016.
- Stuart, Reginald. 2007. Dispersed Relations: Americans and Canadians in Upper North America. Washington and Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center Press and The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
- Temby, Owen, and Peter Stoett, eds. 2018. Regional Transnational Networks and Governance: Towards North American Environmental Policy? Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
- Trudeau, Justin, Barack Obama, and Enrique Peña Nieto. 2016. “Leaders’ Statement on a North American Climate, Clean Energy, and Environment Partnership.” June 29. http://pm.gc.ca/eng/news/2016/06/29/leaders-statement-north-american-climate-clean-energy-and-environment-partnership. Accessed September 4, 2016.
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 2016. Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): North American Regional Assessment. New York: UNEP.http://uneplive.unep.org/media/docs/assessments/GEO_ASSESSMENT_NORTH_AMERICA_Final_C6.pdf. Accessed September 9, 2016.
- VanNijnatten, Debra, and Peter Stoett. 2017. “Continental Biological Counter-Invasion: Invasive Species Management in North America.” In North American Transnational Networks and Governance: Towards Continental Environmental Policy? edited by O. Temby and P. Stoett, 180–202. New York: SUNY Press.Google Scholar