Water Mismanagement as a Wicked Problem in Nauli City, Indonesia: A Mixed-Method Approach

  • Jackwin Simbolan
  • Janet McIntyre-MillsEmail author
Part of the Contemporary Systems Thinking book series (CST)


The paper discusses the water management problem in Nauli City, Indonesia as a wicked problem that needs to be addressed by applying a critical systemic approach to the area of concern. Mixed methods will be applied to examine the wicked problem by using sequential stages of qualitative method followed by a quantitative method. Interviews with water providers and water users showed that water management conflicts have occurred and water has been used as a commodity while neglecting the quality of service. The hypothesis test through a quantitative method revealed that current condition is significantly worse than the previous (10 years ago) condition. This paper recommends that the wicked problem should be addressed by considering at least three aspects: governance, demand management, and preserving the environment.


Mixed methods Wicked problem Water management 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Flinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Ministry of FinanceJakartaIndonesia

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