One-Way Immersion and Mandarin Immersion in the United States
- 200 Downloads
This chapter defines the terminologies key to this project, including one-way immersion, one-way foreign language immersion, and dual language immersion. In addition, it presents an updated analysis of one-way foreign immersion programs based on summaries documented in Lenke and Rhodes (2007) and CAL (2011). The analysis confirms the continued growth for Spanish and Mandarin immersion programs. Additionally, this chapter provides an analysis of the profiles of Mandarin immersion programs in the United States, and identifies that the majority of Mandarin programs nationwide are one-way programs at the elementary school level, offered as a strand within a traditional school, with instruction provided in English and Chinese each half of the time (50-50 model).
- Baker, C., & Wright, W. E. (2017). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
- Boyle, A., August, D., Tabaku, L., Cole, S., & Simpson-Baird, A. (2015). Dual language education programs: Current state policies and practices. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research.Google Scholar
- Campbell, R. N. (1984). The immersion education approach to foreign language teaching. In Studies on immersion education: A collection for United States educators (pp. 114–143). Sacramento, CA: California State Department of Education.Google Scholar
- Center for Applied Linguistics. (2011). Directory of foreign language immersion programs in U.S. schools. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from http://webapp.cal.org/Immersion/.
- Faulkner-Bond, M., Waring, S., Forte, E., Washington, L., Crenshaw, R. L., Tindle, K., & Belknap, B. (2012). The Language Instruction Educational Programs (LIEPs): A review of the foundational literature. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, Policy and Program Studies Service.Google Scholar
- Fortune, T. W. (2012). What the research says about immersion. In Asia Society (Ed.), Chinese language learning in the early grades: A handbook of resources and best practices for Mandarin immersion (pp. 9–13). New York, NY: Asia Society.Google Scholar
- Fortune, T. W., & Tedick, D. J. (2003). What parents want to know about foreign language immersion programs. ERIC Digest. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from https://www.ericdigests.org/2004-4/parents.htm.
- Han, Z. (Ed.). (2014). Studies in second language acquisition of Chinese. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
- Lambert, W. E., & Tucker, G. R. (1972). Bilingual education of children: The St. Lambert experiment. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.Google Scholar
- Lenke, A., & Rhodes, N. (2007). Foreign language immersion programs: Features and trends over thirty-five years. ACIE Newsletter The Bridge: From Research to Practice, 10, 1–8. Retrieved June 15, 2016, from http://carla.umn.edu/immersion/acie/vol10/BridgeFeb07.pdf.
- Looney, D., & Lusin, N. (2018). Enrollments in languages other than English in United States institutions of higher education, summer 2016 and fall 2016: Preliminary report. Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY. Retrieved September 25, 2018, from https://www.mla.org/Resources/Research/Surveys-Reports-and-Other-Documents/Teaching-Enrollments-and-Programs/Enrollments-in-Languages-Other-Than-English-in-United-States-Institutions-of-Higher-Education.
- Merzbach, S. (2017). Doubling enrollment proposed for Chinese immersion charter school. Greenfield Recorder. Retrieved July 20, 2017, from http://www.recorder.com/chinese-immersion-charter-school-expansion-8264711.
- Met, M. (2012). Curriculum and literacy. In Asia Society (Ed.), Chinese language learning in the early grades: A handbook of resources and best practices for Mandarin immersion (pp. 36–39). New York, NY: Asia Society.Google Scholar
- Spicer-Escalante, M. L. (2017). Introduction to dual language immersion: Utah’s experience. In K. Dejonge-kannan, M. L. Spicer-escalante, E. Abell, & A. Salgado (Eds.), Perspectives on effective teaching in dual language immersion and foreign language classrooms: Selected papers from the John Lackstrom (Vol. 2) Linguistics symposium (pp. 3–15). Logan, UT: Department of Languages, Philosophy, and Communication Studies, Utah State University.Google Scholar
- Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V. P. (2012). Dual language education for a transformed world. Albuquerque, NM: Fuente Press.Google Scholar
- Tompkins, C. (2016). How Monrovia’s Mandarin and Spanish language programs are helping offset declining enrollment. Pasadena Star-News. Retrieved July 20, 2017, from https://www.pasadenastarnews.com/2016/05/12/how-monrovias-mandarin-and-spanish-language-programs-are-helping-offset-declining-enrollment/.
- Wang, S. (2012). Sustaining the rapidly expanding Chinese language field. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, 47(3), 19–42.Google Scholar
- Ward, X. (2017). Delavan-Darien schools battle to improve despite diminishing resources. Janesville Gazette. Retrieved July 20, 2017, from https://www.gazettextra.com/20170626/delavan_darien_schools_battle_to_improve_despite_diminishing_resources/.
- Xing, J. Z. (2006). Teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language: A pedagogical grammar. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar