One-Way Immersion and Mandarin Immersion in the United States

  • Chan Lü


This chapter defines the terminologies key to this project, including one-way immersion, one-way foreign language immersion, and dual language immersion. In addition, it presents an updated analysis of one-way foreign immersion programs based on summaries documented in Lenke and Rhodes (2007) and CAL (2011). The analysis confirms the continued growth for Spanish and Mandarin immersion programs. Additionally, this chapter provides an analysis of the profiles of Mandarin immersion programs in the United States, and identifies that the majority of Mandarin programs nationwide are one-way programs at the elementary school level, offered as a strand within a traditional school, with instruction provided in English and Chinese each half of the time (50-50 model).


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chan Lü
    • 1
  1. 1.Asian Languages and LiteratureUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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