Linguistic Unrest at Times of Revolution: The Case of Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya
This chapter examines data from Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Sudan, which share one language, and witnessed more or less violent upheavals in the period since 2011. Linguistic forms and codes played a crucial role as a symbol of power and a tool to dominate. The chapter concentrates on media and public discourse, re-evaluating the relation between language and conflict. We argue that linguistic codes are resources for individual and also a point of contention during or after conflicts. In Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya, linguistic codes were contested, and the authentic identity of revolutionaries during the three revolutions was always questioned by the pro-regime group. The chapter analyses the use of linguistic codes, evaluating them in relation to linguistic theories including the concepts of indexicality, performance, and metalinguistic discourse.
- Androutsopoulos, Jannis. 2012. “Repertoires, Characters, and Scenes: Sociolinguistic Difference in Turkish-German Comedy.” Multilingua 31 (2): 301–326.Google Scholar
- Bassiouney, Reem. 2006. Functions of Code-Switching in Egypt. Evidence from Monologues. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
- Bassiouney, Reem. 2012. “Politicizing Identity: Code Choice and Stance-Taking during the Egyptian Revolution.” Discourse & Society 23 (2, March 1): 107–126. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926511431514.
- Bassiouney, Reem, ed. 2018. Identity and Dialect Performance; A Study of Communities and Dialects. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Bassiouney, Reem, and Mark Muehlhaeusler. 2018. “Cairo: The Linguistic Dynamics of a Multilingual City.” In Urban Sociolinguistics: The City as a Linguistic Process and Experience, ed. Dick Smakman and Patrick Heinrichs, 27–44. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Bourdieu, Pierre. 1982. Ce que parler veut dire: l’économie des échanges linguistiques. Paris: Fayard.Google Scholar
- Boussofara-Omar, Naima. 2017. “When the President Loses His Voice, the People Capture Speech.” In Applied Linguistics in the Middle East and North Africa. Current Practices and Future Directions, ed. Atta Gebril, 12–35. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.Google Scholar
- Bruns, Axel, Tim Highfield, and Jean Burgess. 2013. “The Arab Spring and Social Media Audiences: English and Arabic Twitter Users and Their Networks.” American Behavioral Scientist 57 (7, July 1): 871–898. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764213479374.
- Cameron, Deborah. 2012. Working with Spoken Discourse. Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
- Coupland, Nikolas. 2001. “Language, Situation, and the Relational Self: Theorizing Dialect-Style in Sociolinguistics.” In Style and Sociolinguistic Variation, ed. Penelope Eckert and John R. Rickford, 185–210. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- D’Anna, Luca. 2018. “Dialectal Variation and Identity in Post-revolutionary Libyan Media: The Case of Dragunov (2014).” In Identity and Dialect Performance. A Study of Communities and Dialects, ed. Reem Bassiouney, 321–339. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Heller, Monica, ed. 2007. Bilingualism. A Social Approach. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Hymes, Dell. 1970. “Linguistic Method in Ethnography: Its Development in the United States.” In Method and Theory in Linguistics, ed. Paul M. Garvin, 249–325. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
- Johnstone, Barbara. 2010. “Locating Language in Identity.” In Language and Identity, ed. Carmen Llamas and Dominic Watt, 29–36. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
- Johnstone, Barbara. 2015. Speaking Pittsburghese: The Story of a Dialect. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- al-Jukhkh. 2011. Mashhad raʾsī min Mīdān al-Taḥrīr. Abu Dhabi TV Cahnnel 1. Online. https://youtu.be/SmRz_cN_5Sw.
- Ochs, Elinor. 1992. “Indexing Gender.” In Rethinking Context. Language as an Interactive Phenomenon, ed. Alessandro Duranti and Charles Goodwin, 335–358. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Schneider Britta. 2014. “Oh Boy. Hablas espanol?- Salsa and the Multiple Value of Authenticity in Late Capitalism.” In Indexing Authenticit. Sociolinguistic Perspectives, ed. Veronique Lacoste, Jakob Leimgruber, and Thiemo Breyer, 113–135. Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
- Shiri, Sonia. 2015. “Co-constructing Dissent in the Transient Linguistic Landscape: Multilingual Protest Signs of the Tunisian Revolution.” In Conflict, Exclusion and Dissent in the Linguistic Landscape, ed. Rani Rubdy and Selim Ben Said, 239–259. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Versteegh, Kees. 2014. The Arabic Language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar