Advertisement

Colonial Conflict and Imperial Rivalries in the Americas

  • Roberto A. ValdeónEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Starting with Nebrija’s claim that language has always been the company of empire, this chapter discusses the role of translators during the colonization of the Americas. It considers the metaphor of translation as colonial violence, as the first Europeans kidnapped and trained indigenous people to act as mediators. It discusses the varying importance of translation in the consolidation of the colonial administrations and its use by religious orders and priests to evangelize the native population. It discusses the use of translation in Europe as a metaphor of the rivalry between nations such as Spain and England, and concludes by showing how translation (or the lack of it) continues to shape contemporary nations in the Americas as a result of the early modern colonial conflicts.

References

  1. Aguirre, Joaquín, and Montalbán, Juan M. 1846. Recopilación compendiada de las Leyes de Indias. Madrid: Ignacio Boix.Google Scholar
  2. Alves, Paulo Edson, and Milton, John. 2005. “Inculturation and Acculturation in the Translation of Religious Texts. The Translations of Jesuit Priest José de Anchieta into Tupi in 16th Century Brazil.” Target 17 (2): 275–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailey, Richard W. 2004. “American English: Its Origins and History.” In Language in the U.S.A.: Themes for the Twenty-first Century, ed. Edward Finegan, and John R. Rickford, 3–17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbeau, Marius. 1959. The Languages of Canada in the Voyages of Jacques Cartier. Ottawa, ON: Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources.Google Scholar
  5. Blom, Frans. 1928. “Gaspar Antonio Chi, Interpreter.” American Anthropologist 30 (2): 250–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonvillian, Nancy. 2005. The Mohawk. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers.Google Scholar
  7. Bonvillian, Nancy. 2017. Cultures and Histories of Native North America. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  8. Breva Claramonte, Manuel. 2007. “The European Linguistic Tradition and Early Missionary Grammars in Central and South America.” In History of Linguistics 2005, ed. Douglas A. Kibbee, 236–251. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brickhouse, Anna. 2015. The Unsettlement of America: Translation, Interpretation and the Story of Don Luis de Velasco, 1560–1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cheyfitz, Eric. 1991. The Poetics of Imperialism: Translation and Colonization from the Tempest to Tarzan. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cheyfitz, Eric. 2017. The Disinformation Age: The Collapse of Liberal Democracy in the United States. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cieza de León, Pedro. 1864. The Travels of Pedro Cieza de León. London: Hakluyt Society.Google Scholar
  13. Dimock, Wau Chee. 2003. “Planetary Time and Global Translation: Context in Literary Studies.” Common Knowledge 9 (3): 488–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Giambruno, Cynthia. 2008. “The Role of the Interpreter in the Governance of Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Spanish Colonies in the ‘New World’: Lessons from the Past to the Present.” In Crossing Borders in Community Interpreting. Definitions and Dilemmas, ed. Carmen Valero-Garcés and Anne Martin, 27–49. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goddard, Ives. 1996. Languages. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute.Google Scholar
  16. González-Luis, Francisco. 1992. “La gramática de la lengua tupí de José de Anchieta y su dependencia de la gramática Latina.” Fortunatae 4: 229–244.Google Scholar
  17. Greenblatt, Stephen J. 1991. Marvellous Possessions: The Wonder of the New World. Oxford: Clarendon Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hart, Jonathan. 2003. Comparing Empires. European Colonialism from Portuguese Expansion to the Spanish-American War. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  19. Hart, Jonathan. 2013. Textual Imitation: Making and Seeing Literature. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hutchinson, Thomas. 1769. A Collection of Original Papers Relative to the History of the Colony of Massachusetts-Bay. Boston: Thomas and John Fleet.Google Scholar
  21. Kartunnen, Frances. 1994. Between Worlds: Interpreters, Guides and Survivors. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Kawashima, Yasuhide. 1988. “Colonial Government Agencies.” In History of Indian-White Relations, ed. Wilcomb E. Washburn, 245–254. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  23. López de Abiada, José Manuel. 2007. Imagology: The Cultural Construction and Literary Representation of National Characters: A Critical Survey, ed. Manfred Beller and Joep Leerssen, 242–248. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar
  24. Mackenthun, Gesa. 1997. Metaphors of Dispossession. American Beginnings and the Translation of Empire, 1492–1637. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  25. Mason, John. 1736. A Brief History of the Pequot War. Boston: S. Kneeland & T. Green.Google Scholar
  26. McCarty, Teresa L. 2013. Language Planning and Policy in Native America: History, Theory, Praxis. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Meuwese, Mark. 2011. Brothers in Arms, Partners in Trade. Dutch-Indigenous Alliances in the Atlantic World, 1595–1674. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  28. Miller, Shannon. 1998. Invested with Meaning. The Raleigh Circle in the New World. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  29. Monaghan, E. Jennifer. 2005. Learning to Read and Write in Colonial America. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.Google Scholar
  30. Oberg, Michael L. 2008. The Head in Edward Nugent’s Hand. Roanoke’s Forgotten Indians. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  31. Ovando, Carlos J., and Wiley, Terrence G. 2007. “Language Education in Conflicted United States.” In Multicultural Education Policies in Canada and the United States, ed. Reva Joshee and Laurie Johnson, 107–119. Vancouver and Toronto: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  32. Pearson, Jonathan. 1873. Contributions for the Genealogies of the Descendants of the First Settlers of the Patent and City of Schenectady, from 1662 to 1800. Albany, NY: J. Munsell.Google Scholar
  33. Peckham, George. 1583. A True Reporte of the Newfound Landes. London and New York: Da Capo Press.Google Scholar
  34. Rabasa, José. 1993. “Writing and Evangelization in Sixteenth-Century Mexico.” In Early Images of the Americas. Transfer and Invention, ed. Jerry M. Williams and Robert E. Lewis, 65–92. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  35. Restall, Matthew. 2003. Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Robinson, Douglas. 2011. Translation and Empire. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Roland, Ruth A. 1999. Interpreters as Diplomats. A Diplomatic History of the Role of Interpreters in World Politics. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.Google Scholar
  38. Schneider, Bethany R. 2005. “Reading for Indian Resistance.” In A Companion to the Literatures of Colonial America, ed. Susan Castillo and Ivy Schweitzer, 159–173. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  39. Seed, Patricia. 1993. “Taking Possession and Readings Texts. Establishing the Authority of Overseas Empires.” In Early Images of the Americas: Transfer and Invention, ed. Jerrry M. Williams and Robert E. Lewis, 111–147. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  40. Seed, Patricia. 1995. Ceremonies of Possession in Europe’s Conquest of the New World 1492–1640. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Seed, Patricia. 2001. American Pentimento. The Invention of Indians and the Pursuit of Richness. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  42. Shannon, Timothy J. 2000. Indians and Colonists at the Crossroads of Empire. The Albany Congress of 1754. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Smith, Samuel. 1764. The History of the Colony of Nova-Caesaria or New Jersey. Burlington, NJ: James Parker.Google Scholar
  44. Todorov, Tzvetan. 1987. The Conquest of America. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  45. Valdeón, Roberto A. 2012a. “Tears of the Indies and the Power of Translation: John Phillips’s Version of Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias.” Bulletin of Spanish Studies 89 (6): 839–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Valdeón, Roberto A. 2012b. “Translation and the Crónica del Perú: The Many Voices of Pedro Cieza de León.” Philological Quarterly 91 (4): 569–590.Google Scholar
  47. Valdeón, Roberto A. 2013. “Doña Marina/La Malinche: A Historiographical Approach to the Interpreter/Traitor.” Target 25 (2): 157–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Valdeón, Roberto A. 2014. Translation and the Spanish Empire in the Americas. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wainwright, Nicholas B. 1959. George Croghan. Wilderness Diplomat. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  50. Weinberg, Meyer. 1995. A Chance to Learn: the History of Race and Education in the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Weiser, C.Z. 1876. The Life of (John) Conrad Weiser, the German Pioneer, Patriot and Patron of Two Races. Reading, PA: Daniel Miller.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Filologia AnglogermanicaUniversidad de OviedoOviedoSpain

Personalised recommendations