Advertisement

Latino Families and Schools: Identifying Challenges and Highlighting Strengths to Support Children’s Early Learning

  • Guadalupe DíazEmail author
  • Megan M. McClelland
Chapter

Abstract

The present chapter focuses on low-income Latino families and their children within the context of the schools they attend in the USA. Latino children enter kindergarten with a range of academic and self-regulation skills, but parents and children can face multiple challenges navigating the educational context. The chapter explores risk factors (i.e., policies and demographics) experienced by low-income Latino families and how these factors shape their children’s experiences in school. It also focuses on the importance of foundational skills such as self-regulation for Latino children’s school success and interventions to promote these skills. The chapter then highlights the strengths these families bring to support their children’s early learning and educational experiences. Discussion focuses on ways that schools can capitalize on the strengths that Latino families bring to collaboratively support children’s academic achievement and educational equity.

References

  1. Allen, B., Cisneros, E. M., & Tellez, A. (2015). The children left behind: The impact of parental deportation on mental health. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 386–392.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9848-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appleyard, K., Egeland, B., van Dulmen, M. H. M., & Sroufe, L. A. (2005). When more is not better: the role of cumulative risk in child behavior outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(3), 235–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bialystok, E. (2017). The bilingual adaptation: How minds accommodate experience. Psychological Bulletin, 143(3), 233–262.  https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000099.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Bialystok, E., Martin, M. M., & Viswanathan, M. (2005). Bilingualism across the lifespan: The rise and fall of inhibitory control. International Journal of Bilingualism., 9(1), 103–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bialystok, E., & Viswanathan, M. (2009). Components of executive control with advantages for bilingual children in two cultures. Cognition, 112, 494–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blair, C. (2002). School readiness: Integrating cognition and emotion in a neurobiological conceptualization of children’s functioning at school entry. American Psychologist, 57(2), 111–127.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.57.2.111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2014). Closing the achievement gap through modification of neurocognitive and neuroendocrine function: Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial of an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten. PLoS ONE, 9(11), e112393.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112393.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2015). School readiness and self-regulation: A developmental psychobiological approach. Annual Review of Psychology, 66(1), 711–731.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015221.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Blair, C., & Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development, 78(2), 647–663.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01019.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boals, T., Kenyon, D. M., Blair, A., Cranley, M. E., Wilmes, C., & Wright, L. J. (2015). Transformation in K-12 English language proficiency assessment: Changing contexts, changing constructs. Review of Research in Education, 39, 122–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brabeck, K., & Xu, Q. (2010). The impact of detention and deportation on Latino immigrant families: A quantitative exploration. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 32(3), 342–361.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0739986310374053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burchinal, M. R., Field, S., Lopez, M. L., Howes, C., & Pianta, R. (2012). Instruction in Spanish in pre-kindergarten classrooms and child outcomes for English language learners. Early Childhood Research Quaterly, 27, 188–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Butler, F. A., Stevens, R., & Castellon, M. (2007). ELLs and standardized assessments: The interaction between language proficiency and performance on standardized tests. In A. L. Bailey (Ed.), The language demands of school: Putting academic English to the test (pp. 68–102). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Carlson, S. M., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2008). Bilingual experience and executive functioning of young children. Developmental Science, 11(2), 282–298.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00675.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Castro, D. C., García, E. E., Markos, A. M. (2013). Dual language learners: Research informing policy. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, Center for Early Care and Education—Dual Language Learners. Retrieved from: http://cecerdll.fpg.unc.edu/sites/cecerdll.fpg.unc.edu/files/imce/documents/%232961_ResearchInformPolicyPaper.pdf.
  16. Chang, F., Crawford, G., Diane, E., Donna, B., Howes, C., Burchinal, M., et al. (2007). Spanish-speaking children’s social and language development in pre-kindergarten classrooms. Early Education and Development, 18(2), 243–269.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10409280701282959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chase-Lansdale, P. L., Eckrich Sommer, T., Sabol, T. J., Chor. E., Brooks-Gunn, J., Yoshikawa, H., King, C., & Morris, A. (2017). What are the effects of pairing Head Start services for children with career pathway training for parents? Administration for Children & Families. Retrieved from: https://ascend.aspeninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/CAP20Tulsa20impact20analysis.pdf.
  18. Chaundry, A., Capps, R., Pedroza, J. M., Castaneda, R. M., Santos, R., & Scott, M.M. (2010). Facing out future: Children in the aftermath of immigration enforcement. The Urban Institute. Retrieved from: https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/28331/412020-Facing-Our-Future.pdf.
  19. Chesterfield, R., Hayes-Latimer, K., Barrows Chesterfield, K., & Chávez, R. (1983). The influence of teachers and peers on second language acquisition in bilingual preschool programs. TESOL Quarterly, 17, 401–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clarke, W., Turner, K. & Guzman, L. (2017). One quarter of Hispanic children in the United States have an unauthorized immigrant parent. National Research Center on Hispanic Children and Families. Retrieved from: http://www.hispanicresearchcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Hispanic-Center-Undocumented-Brief-FINAL.pdf.
  21. Child Trends. (2013). Secure parental employment: Indicators on children and youth. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/wpcontent/uploads/2012/09/68_Parental_Employment.pdf.
  22. Cole, P. M., Martin, S. E., & Dennis, T. A. (2004). Emotion regulation as a scientific construct: Methodological challenges and directions for child development research. Child Development, 75, 317–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Crivello, C., Kuzyk, O., Rodrigues, M., Friend, M., Zesiger, P., & Pouin-Dubois, D. (2016). The effects of bilingual growth on toddlers’ executive function. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 141, 121–132.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2015.08.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Crosby, D., & Mendez, J. (2017). How common are nonstandard work schedules among low-income Hispanic parents of young children. National Research Center on Hispanic Children & Families. Retrieved from: http://www.hispanicresearchcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Hispanics-Center-parental-work-hours-Brief-11.1-V2.pdf.
  25. Crosnoe, R. (2006). Mexican roots, American schools: Helping Mexican immigrant children succeed. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Dearing, E., Berry, D., & Zaslow, M. (2006). Poverty during early childhood. In K. McCartney & D. Phillips (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of early childhood development (pp. 399–423). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Debry, J. (2012). The burden of deportation on children in Mexican immigrant families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74(4), 829–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Díaz, G., Dodge-Vera, T., & López-Cevallos, D.F., Brambila, M. Y., & Gonzales-Berry, E. (2018). Educational equity for latino families: Evaluating the educational experiences of Latino parent and students. Manuscript under review.Google Scholar
  29. Díaz, G., & McClelland, M. M. (2017). The influence of parenting for Mexican American children’s self-regulation. PsyCh Journal, 6, 43–56.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pchj.158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Díaz, G., Thompson, K., & McClelland, M. M. (2018). English language learners’ performance on the Oregon kindergarten assessments. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  31. Duncan, R. J., Schmitt, S. A., Burke, M., & McClelland, M. M. (2018). Combining a kindergarten readiness summer program with a self-regulation intervention improves school readiness. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 42, 291–300.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2017.10.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Every Student Succeeds Act. (2016). National Conference of State Legislatures. http://www.ncsl.org/documents/educ/ESSA_summary_NCSL.pdf.
  33. Espinosa, L. M. (2007). English-language learners as they enter school. In R. Pianta, M. Cox, & K. Snow (Eds.), School readiness and the transition to kindergarten in the era of accountability (pp. 175–196). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  34. Espinosa, L. M. (2010). Getting it right for young children from diverse backgrounds: Applying research to improve practice. Pennsylvania: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  35. Espinosa, L. M. (2013). Early education for dual language learners: Promoting school readiness and early school success. Migration Policy Institute. http://fcd-us.org/sites/default/files/DualLanguageLearners.pdf.
  36. Evans, G. W., & Rosenbaum, J. (2008). Self-regulation and the income-achievement gap. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(4), 504–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Finders, J. K., Díaz, G., John, G., Sektnan, M., & Rennekamp, D. (2016). The impact of parenting education on parent and child behaviors: Moderators by income and ethnicity. Children and Youth Services Review, 71, 199–209.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.11.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fitzgerald, J. (1993). Literacy and students who are learning English as a second language. The Reading Teacher, 46(8), 638–647.Google Scholar
  39. Flores, A. (2017). How the U.S. Hispanic population is changing. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/18/how-the-u-s-hispanic-population-is-changing/.
  40. Fry, R. (2008). The role of schools in the English Language Learner achievement gap. Pew Hispanic Center. http://www.pewhispanic.org/files/reports/89.pdf.
  41. Fuligni, S. A., & Howes, C. (2011). Experiences of low-income dual language learning preschoolers in diverse early learning settings. In Carollee Howes, Jason T. Downer, & Robert C. Pianta (Eds.), Dual language learners in the early childhood classroom (pp. 69–91). Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  42. Galindo, C., & Fuller, B. (2010). The social competence of Latino kindergartners and growth in mathematical understanding. Developmental Psychology, 46(3), 579–592.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017821.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Galindo, C., & Sonnenschein, S. (2015). Decreasing the SES math achievement gap: Initial math proficiency and home learning environments. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 43, 25–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2015.08.003.
  44. Gándara, P., & Contreras, F. (2010). The Latino education crisis: The consequences of failed social policies. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Gándara, P., Maxwell-Jolly, J., & Driscoll, A. (2005). Listening to teacher of English learners. Retrieved from Center for the Future of teaching and Learning: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED491701.pdf.
  46. Garcia Coll, C. T, Meyer, E. C., & Brillon, L. (1995). Ethnic and minority parenting. In M. H. Bornstein, et al. (Eds.), Handbook of parenting, Vol. 2: Biology and ecology of parenting (pp. 189–209). Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  47. Garcia, E. E., & Frede, E. A. (2010). Young English language learners: Current research and emerging directions for practice and policy. NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  48. Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W., & Christian, D. (2005). English language learners in U.S. schools: An overview of research findings. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 10(4), 363–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Good, M. E., Masewicz, S., & Vogel, L. (2010). Latino English language learners: Bridging achievement and cultural gaps between schools and families. Journal of Latinos and Education, 9(4), 321–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Halle, T., Hair, E., Wandner, L., McNamara, M., & Chien, N. (2012). Predictors and outcomes of early versus later English language proficiency among English language learners. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Herbers, J. E., Cutuli, J. J., Supkoff, L. M., Heistad, D., Chan, C., Hinz, E., et al. (2012). Early reading skills and academic achievement trajectories of students facing poverty, homelessness, and high residential mobility. Educational Researcher, 41(9), 366–374.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X12445320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hernandez, D. J. (2004). Demographic change and the life circumstances of immigrant families. The Future of Children, 14(2), 16–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hill, N. E., & Torres, K. (2010). Negotiating the American dream: The paradox of aspirations and achievement among Latino students and engagement between families and schools. Journal of Social Issues, 66(1), 95–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hoff, E. (2013). Interpreting the early language trajectories of children from low SES and language minority homes: Implications for closing achievement gaps. Developmental Psychology, 49(1), 4–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jasis, M. P., & Ordoñez-Jasis, R. (2012). Latino parent involvement: Examining commitment and empowerment in schools. Urban Education, 47(1), 65–89.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085911416013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jones, D., Forehand, R., Brody, G., & Armitead, L. (2002). Psychosocial adjustment of African American children in single-mother families: A test of three risk models. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lan, X., Legare, C. H., Ponitz, C. C., Su, L., Morrison, F. J. (2011). Investigating the links between the subcomponents of executive function and academic achievement: A cross-cultural analysis of Chinese and American preschoolers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 677–692.Google Scholar
  58. Lee, J., & Bowen, N. K. (2006). Parent involvement, cultural capital, and the achievement gap among elementary school children. American Educational Research Journal, 43(2), 193–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lengua, L. J. (2002). The contribution of emotionality and self-regulation to the understanding of children’s response to multiple risk. Child Development, 73, 144–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Li-Grining, C. P. (2012). The role of cultural factors in the development of Latino preschoolers’ self-regulation. Child Development Perspectives, 6(3), 210–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Linquanti, R. (2011). Strengthening assessment for English learner success: How can the promise of the common core state standards and innovative assessment systems be realized? In D. Plank & J. Norton (Eds.), The road ahead for state assessments (pp. 13–25). Palo Alto, CA & Cambridge, MA: Policy Analysis for California Education and Rennie Center for Education Research & Policy.Google Scholar
  62. Lucas, T., Villegas, A. M., & Freedson-Gonzales, M. (2008). Linguistically responsive teacher education: Preparing classroom teachers to teach English Language Learners. Journal of Teacher Education, 59(4), 361–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Magnuson, K. (2007). Maternal education and children’s academic achievement during middle childhood. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1497–1512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mancilla-Martinez, J., Christodoulou, J. A., & Shabaker, M. M. (2014). Preschoolers’ English vocabulary development: The influence of language proficiency and at-risk factors. Learning and Individual Differences, 35, 79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McClelland, M. M., Acock, A. C., & Morrison, F. J. (2006). The impact of kindergarten learning-related skills on academic trajectories at the end of elementary school. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21(4), 471–490.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2006.09.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McClelland, M. M., Acock, A. C., Piccinin, A., Rhea, S. A., & Stallings, M. C. (2013). Relations between preschool attention span-persistence and age 25 educational outcomes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(2), 314–324.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2012.07.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. McClelland, M. M., Cameron, C. E., Connor, C. M., Farris, C. L., Jewkes, A. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2007). Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers’ literacy, vocabulary and math skills. Developmental Psychology, 43(4), 947–959.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.4.947.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. McClelland, M. M., Cameron Ponitz, C., Messersmith, E., & Tominey, S. (2010). Self-regulation: The integration of cognition and emotion. In R. Lerner (Series Ed.) & W. Overton (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of life-span development. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  69. McClelland, M. M., Tominey, S. L., Schmitt, S. A., & Duncan, R. (2017). Social-emotional learning interventions in early childhood. Future of Children, 27(1), 33–48.Google Scholar
  70. Migrantion Policy Institute. (2010). Top languages spoken by English language learners nationally and by state. Retrieved from http://www.migrationinformation.org/ellinfo/FactSheet_ELL3.pdf.
  71. Mills, B., Dyer, N., Pacheco, D., Brinkley, D., Owen, M. T., & Caughy, M. O. (2018). Developmental transactions between self-regulation and academic achievement among low-income African American and Latino children. Child Development, 00, 1–8.Google Scholar
  72. Moore, K. A., Caal, S., Rojas, A., & Lawner, E. K. (2014). Child trend’s evaluation of the Abriendo Puertas/opening doors program: Executive summary and discussion brief. Retrieved from Child Trends http://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/.
  73. Morrison, F. J., Cameron Ponitz, C., McClelland, M. M. (2010). Self-regulation and academic achievement in the transition to school. In S. D. Calkins & M. A. Bell (Eds.), Child development at the intersection of emotion and cognition. Human brain development (pp. 203–224). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. New York: NY.Google Scholar
  74. Mosle, A. & Patel, N. (2012). Two generations, one future: Moving parents and children beyond poverty together. The Aspen Institute. Retrieved from ascend. aspeninstitute.org/resources/two-generations-one-future.Google Scholar
  75. National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2009). Where we stand on responding to linguistic and cultural diversity. Retrieved from: https://www.naeyc.org/sites/default/files/globally-shared/downloads/PDFs/resources/position-statements/diversity.pdf.
  76. National Center for Education Statistics. (2017). Racial/ethnic enrollment in public schools. Retrieved from: https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/pdf/coe_cge.pdf.
  77. National Human Services Assembly. (2016). The two-generation approach framework: A closer look at state-level implementation. Retrieved from: http://www.nassembly.org/Uploads2/Resources/2GenFramework_Sept2016_1.pdf.
  78. Noble, K. G., Duch, H., Darvique, M. E., Grundleger, A., Rodriguez, C., & Landers, C. (2012). Getting ready for school: A preliminary evaluation of a parent-focused school-readiness program. Child Development Research. Article ID: 259598. Retrieved from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2012/259598/.
  79. O’Brien Caughy, M., Mills, B., Tresch Owen, M., & Hurst, J. R. (2013). Emergent self regulation skills among very young ethnic minority children: A confirmatory factor model. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116(4), 839–855.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2013.07.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pandey, A., Hale, D., Das, S., Goddings, A., Blakemore, S., & Viner, R. M. (2018). Effectiveness of universal self-regulation-based interventions in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatrics.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.0232.
  81. Pew Hispanic Center. (2011). The toll of the great depression: Childhood poverty among Hispanic sets records, leads nation. Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/147.pdf.
  82. Pew Hispanic Center. (2008). Unemployment rises sharply among Latino immigrants in 2008. Retrieved from http://fm.cnbc.com/applications/cnbc.com/resources/editorialfiles/2012/06/14/ImmUnemploy.pdf.
  83. Poarch, G. J., & van Hell, J. G. (2012). Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: Evidence from second –language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 11, 535–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Raver, C. C., Jones, S. M., Li-Grining, C. P., Zhai, F., Bub, K., & Pressler, E. (2011). CSRP’s impact on low-income preschoolers’ pre-academic skills: Self-regulation and teacher-student relationships as two mediating mechanisms. Child Development, 82(1), 362–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rojas-Flores, L., Clements, M., Koo, J., & London, J. (2017). Trauma and psychological distress in Latino citizen children following parental detention and deportation. Psychological Trauma-Theory Research Practice and Policy, 9(3), 352–361.  https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rueda, M. R., Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2004). Attentional control and self-regulation. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 283–300). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  87. Rybanska, V., McKay, R., Jong, J., & Whitehouse, H. (2017). Rituals improve children’s ability to delay gratification. Child Development.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12762.
  88. Schecter, S. R., Sharken-Taboada, D., & Bayley, R. (1996). Bilingual by choice: Latino parents’ rationales and strategies for raising children with two languages. Bilingual Research Journal, 20(2), 261–281.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1525882.1996.10668630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schmitt, S. A., Geldhof, G. J., Purpura, D. J., Duncan, R., & McClelland, M. M. (2017). Examining the relations between executive function, math, and literacy during the transition to kindergarten: A multi-method approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(8), 1120–1140.  https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schmitt, S. A., McClelland, M. M., Tominey, S., & Acock, A. C. (2015). Strengthening school readiness for Head Start children: An evaluation of a self-regulation intervention. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30, 20–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schneider, B., Martinez, S., & Ownes, A. (2004). Barriers to educational opportunities for Hispanics in the United States. In M. Tienda & F. Mitchell (Eds.), Hispanics and the future of America (pp. 179–227). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  92. Siegel, L. S., Ryan, E. B. (1989). The development of working memory in normally achieving and subtypes of learning disabled children. Child Development, 60, 973–980.Google Scholar
  93. Smith, A., Lalonde, R. N., & Johnson, S. (2004). Serial migration and its implications for the parent-child relationship: A retrospective analysis of the experiences of the children of Caribbean immigrants. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(2), 107–122.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1099-9809.10.2.107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Sonnenschein, S., Metzger, S. R., Dowling, R., & Baker, L. (2017). The relative importance of English versus Spanish language skills for low-income Latino English language learners’ early language and literacy development. Early Child Development and Care, 187(3–4), 727–743.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2016.1219854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. The Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2014). Creating opportunity for families. Retrieved from: http://www.aecf.org/m/resourcedoc/aecf-CreatingOpportunityforFamilies-2014.pdf.
  96. Tominey, S. L., & McClelland, M. M. (2011). Red light, purple light: findings randomized trial using circle time games to improve behavioral self-regulation in preschool. Early Education and Development, 22(3), 489–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tominey, S. L., & O’Bryon, E. C. (2018). 45 strategies that support young dual language learners. Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc.Google Scholar
  98. Turner, K., Guzman, L., Wildsmith, E. & Scott, M. (2015). The complex and varied households of low-income Hispanic children. National Research Center on Hispanic Children & Families. Retrieved from: http://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/2015-04ComplexHouseholdsLowIncomeHispanic.pdf.
  99. U.S. Census. (2011). Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States. Retrieved from: http://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/p60-243.pdf.
  100. Valdes, G. (1996). Con respeto: Bridging the distances between cultural diverse families and schools. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  101. Verhagen, J., Mulder, H., & Leseman, P. P. (2017). Effects of home language environment on inhibitory control in bilingual three-year-old children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 20(1), 114–127.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s1366728915000590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Vitiello, V. E., Downer, J. T., & Williford, A. P. (2011). Preschool classroom experiences of dual language learners: Summary of findings from publicly funded programs in 11 states. In C. Howes, J. T. Downer, & R. C. Pianta (Eds.), Dual languange learners in the early childhood classroom (pp. 69–91). Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  103. Wanless, S. B., McClelland, M. M., Tominey, S. L., & Acock, A. C. (2011). The influence of demographic risk factors on children’s behavioral regulation in prekindergarten and kindergarten. Early Education & Development, 22(3), 461–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wildsmith, E., Alvira-Hammond, M. & Guzman, L. (2017). A national portrait of Hispanic children in need. National Research Center on Hispanic Children & Families. Retrieved from: http://www.hispanicresearchcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/2016-15HispChildrenInNeed.pdf.
  105. Williams, C. P. (2014). Focusing on Latino parents’ strengths. New America. Retrieved from https://www.newamerica.org/education-policy/edcentral/focusing-latino-parents-strengths/.
  106. Wisconin Center for Education Research. (2016). The early years: Assets-based, language-focused family engagement for dual language learners. Retrieved from: https://www.wida.us/resources/focus/WIDA_Focus_on_Early_Years.pdf.
  107. Wolf, M. K., Kao, J., Griffin, N., Herman, J. L., Bachman, P. L., Chang, S. M., & Farnsworth, T. (2008). Issues in assessing English language learners: English language proficiency measures and accommodation uses. CRESST Report 732. Los Angeles, CA: National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.Google Scholar
  108. Yoshikawa, H., & Kalil, A. (2011). The effects of parental undocumented status on the developmental context of young children in immigrant families. Child Development Perspectives, 5(4), 291–297.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Yoshikawa, H., Suárez-Orozco, C,. & Gonzales, R. G. (2016). Unauthorized status and youth development in the United States: Consensus statement of the society of research on adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12272.
  110. Zwiers, J. (2013). Building academic language: Essential practices for content classrooms, grades 5–12. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass: A Wiley Imprint.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationUniversity of California, IrvineIrvineUSA
  2. 2.Human Development and Family Sciences, 125 Hallie E. Ford Center for Healthy Children and FamiliesOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

Personalised recommendations