Autism in Boys and Girls, Women and Men Throughout the Lifespan

  • Patricia van Wijngaarden-CremersEmail author


Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a clinical syndrome. ASD is not a distinct condition but the extreme of a continuum that goes from “normality” to “autistic conditions”. In this chapter, the huge differences in clinical expression, gender differences, as well as differences as development progresses will be discussed. To start with, we will look into the notion of developmental psychopathology in which, along with the intrinsic gender factor, the external interaction with the environment plays an important role. Then we will look closely into the different clinical expressions on the different dimensions, to subsequently look into the diagnostic difficulties that lead to late detection in women and high functioning individuals. To finally see which consequences these findings have on our diagnostic assessment, clinical management and families of those with ASD.


Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Gender differences Brain development Phenotype Genotype 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Expertise of Developmental DisordersSCOS DimenceDeventerThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryRadboud University NijmegenNijmegenThe Netherlands

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