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Defense 4.0: Internet of Things in Military

Part of the Science, Technology and Innovation Studies book series (STAIS)


Scientific and Technological (S&T) developments have been influencing military concepts and practice, particularly following the inception of the scientific revolution in the late sixteenth century. Defense has traditionally been one of the key drivers of S&T advancements due to large amount of funding it received particularly by national governments. A number of technologies have been developed for defense, found their civilian applications, and vice versa. Wherever the boost for change comes from, the nature of warfare has changed radically both due to S&T advancements and changing socioeconomic and geopolitical contexts. Despite of the barriers due to strict organizational culture, armies have adapted themselves into changing characteristics of warfare through new concepts and instruments. Among S&T developments, recent advancements in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) bring enormous opportunities as well as challenges for defense. One of the recent phenomena emerged with the rapid development of ICTs is the Internet of Things (IoTs), which affects every aspect of life with a growing number of devices communicating with each other. While the possibilities introduced by the IoT have been providing immense benefits, the increasing number of connections makes the system ever more complex and vulnerable because of the difficulty of securing huge networks. The chapter discusses how IoT will affect the military affairs and proposes future scenarios for exploring alternative trajectories.


  • Internet of things
  • Digitalization
  • S&T development

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-04370-4_14
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The contributions by Professor Ozcan Saritas in this study were prepared within the framework of the Basic Research Program at the National Research University Higher School of Economics and supported within the framework of the subsidy by the Russian Academic Excellence Project ‘5-100’. The contributions by Asst. Professor Haydar Yalcin in this study was supported by Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey Postdoctoral Research Programme (TUBITAK BIDEP 2219) [1059B191700840].

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Correspondence to Ozcan Saritas .

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Burmaoglu, S., Saritas, O., Yalcin, H. (2019). Defense 4.0: Internet of Things in Military. In: Meissner, D., Gokhberg, L., Saritas, O. (eds) Emerging Technologies for Economic Development. Science, Technology and Innovation Studies. Springer, Cham.

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