Re-Tellings: The Fourth Layer of Narrative as an Instrument for Critique

  • Mirjam Palosaari EladhariEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11318)


The fourth layer of narrative in Interactive Narrative Systems (INS), such as games, is the players’ re-tellings of the stories they have experienced when playing. The occurrence of re-tellings can be considered as an indicator for a well designed INS and as an instrument of critique - the experiences of play are important and memorable to such a degree to the players that they find them worthy to tell others about. The notion of the fourth layer is added to the structural model of IN Systems having (1) a base architectural layer giving conditions for a (2) second layer of narrative design, while a (3) third layer is the narrative discourse - eg. the unique, session-specific played or traversed sequences of events. In relation to this, the Story Construction model is described.


Interactive narrative systems Storytelling in games Story construction Fan fiction 


  1. 1.
    Aarseth, E.J.: Cybertext, Perspectives on Ergodic Literature. Johns Hopkins University Press, September 1997Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bolter, J.D.: Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (1991)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Budniakiewicz, T.: Fundamentals of Story Logic: Introduction to Greimassian Semiotics. John Benjamins Pub. Co., Amsterdam (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burkinshaw, R.: Alice and Kev - The story of being homeless in The Sims 3.
  5. 5.
    Burkinshaw, R.: Selflessness—Alice and Kev.
  6. 6.
    Campbell, J.: The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton University Press, Princeton (1949)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cavazza, M., et al.: The IRIS network of excellence: integrating research in interactive storytelling. In: Spierling, U., Szilas, N. (eds.) ICIDS 2008. LNCS, vol. 5334, pp. 14–19. Springer, Heidelberg (2008). Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chatman, S.: Story and Discourse. Cornell University Press, London (1978)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cherny, L.: “Objectifying” the body in the discourse of an object-oriented MUD. Stanford University, Technical report (1994)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cook, M., Colton, S., Gow, J.: The ANGELINA videogame design system-part i. IEEE T. Comp. Intel. AI Games 9(2), 192–203 (2017)., Scholar
  11. 11.
    Danzyger, K., Rush, J.: Alternative Scriptwriting. Focal Press (1995)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eladhari, M.P.: Characterising action potential in virtual game worlds applied with the mind module. Ph.D. thesis, Teesside University, September 2010Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fencott, C.: Agencies of Interactive Digital Storytelling (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fencott, C.: Virtual storytelling as narrative potential: towards an ecology of narrative. In: Balet, O., Subsol, G., Torguet, P. (eds.) ICVS 2001. LNCS, vol. 2197, pp. 90–99. Springer, Heidelberg (2001). Scholar
  15. 15.
    Genette, G.: Narrative Discourse - An Essay in Method. Cornell University Press, Ithaca (1983)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Greimas, A.J.: Sémantique structurale. Larousse (1966)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Greimas, A.J.: Narrative Semiotics and Cognitive Discourses. Pinter (1990)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hellekson, K., Busse, K.: The Fan Fiction Studies Reader. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City (2014)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jenkins, H.: Game Design as Narrative Architecture. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2003)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Juul, J.: A clash between game and narrative - a thesis on computer games and interactive fiction. Ph.D. thesis, University of Copenhagen (1999)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Klastrup, L.: The Death Stories Project. [Electronic Publication] (2006).
  22. 22.
    Koenitz, H.: Towards a specific theory of interactive digital narrative. In: Interactive Digital Narrative: History, Theory and Practice (2015)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Landow, G.P.: Hypertext: The Converge of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore (1992)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Laurel, B., Strickland, R., Tow, R.: Placeholder: landscape and narrative in virtual environments. SIGGRAPH Comput. Graph 28(2), 118–126 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: Structuring content in the Façade interactive drama architecture. In: Proceedings of the First AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, AIIDE 2005, pp. 93–98. AAAI Press, Marina del Rey (2005)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Meadows, M.S.: Pause & Effect - The Art of Interactive Narrative. New Riders (2003)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Microsoft Corporation: Asheron’s Call 2 - Fallen Kings [Computer Game - Virtual Game World]. Turbine Entertainment (2002)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Murray, J.H.: Hamlet on the Holodeck. The Free Press, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Propp, V.: Morphology of the Folktale. University of Texas Press, Austin (1968)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rimmon-Kenan, S.: Narrative Fiction: Contemporary Poetics. Methuen & Co (1993)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ringer, C., Nicolaou, M.A.: Deep unsupervised multi-view detection of video game stream highlights. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games - FDG 2018, pp. 1–6. ACM Press, New York (2018).,
  32. 32.
    Ryan, M.L.: Beyond Myth and Metaphor - The Case of Narrative in Digital Media. Game Studies, July 2001Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ryan, M.L.: Avatars of Story (Electronic Mediations), 1 edn. University of Minnesota Press (2006)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sega AM2: Shenmue II [Consol Game]. Sega, Microsoft Game Studios (2001)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sony Online Entertainment: Star Wars Galaxies: An Empire Divided. Lucas Arts [Computer Game - Virtual Game World], June 2003Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    The Sims Studio: The Sims 3. Elactronic Arts [Computer Game] (2009)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tronstad, R.: Semiotic and Nonsemiotic MUD Performance. Holland (2001)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vogler, C.: The Writers Journey. Michael Wiese Productions (1993)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wagner, J.: Second Life: Notes from a New World. Electronic Publication (2003).
  40. 40.
    Wardrip-Fruin, N.: Expressive Processing: Digital Fictions, Computer Games, and Software Studies. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Södertörn UniversityHuddingeSweden

Personalised recommendations