Advertisement

Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Electric Vehicles

  • Gowri AsaithambiEmail author
  • Martin Treiber
  • Venkatesan Kanagaraj
Chapter

Abstract

Vehicles have become the primary cause of greenhouse gas emission. A comprehensive technique used for estimating energy consumption and environmental impact of vehicles is known as life cycle assessment which comprises of two parts: fuel life cycle and vehicle life cycle. Emissions from fuel life cycle is estimated using GREET (greenhouse gases regulated emissions and energy consumption in transportation) model. Vehicle life cycle emissions are calculated based on mass and type of material used for vehicle production, type of energy/electricity used for vehicle operation and its life time. This chapter made a comparison between the life cycle CO2 emissions of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles and electric vehicles (EVs). The impacts of EVs are highly dependent on vehicle operation energy consumption and the electricity mix used for charging. For example EVs in China produce more CO2 emissions compared to ordinary ICE vehicles whereas that in Germany, USA, and Japan produce less emissions.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The third author is supported by a fellowship of the Alexander Von Humboldt Research Foundation, Germany at the Technical University of Dresden, Germany.

References

  1. 1.
    Lin, B.: China Energy Outlook 2011, 1st edn. Tsinghua University Press (2011)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    International Energy Agency: Global EV Outlook: Beyond One Million Electric Cars. OECD/IEA, Paris, France (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    International Energy Agency.: CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Highlights (2013 edition), Paris, France (2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhang, X., Xie, J., Rao, R., Liang, Y.: Policy incentives for the adoption of electric vehicles across countries. Sustainability 6, 8056–8078 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    International Energy Agency.: CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Highlights (2016 edition), Paris, France (2016)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
    Lane, B.: Life Cycle Assessment of Vehicle Fuels and Technologies, Final Report, London Borough of Camden, Mar 2006Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang, M.: GREET 1.5—Transportation Fuel-Cycle Model. Volume 1: Methodology, Development, Use, and Results, Technical Report ANL/ESD/TM-22, Argonne National Laboratory (1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schucker, M., Saur, K., Florin, H., Eyerer, P., Beddies, H.: Life cycle analysis: getting the total picture on vehicle engineering alternatives. Autom. Eng. 104, 49–52 (1996)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zamel, N., Li, X.: Life cycle analysis of vehicles powered by a fuel cell and by internal combustion engine for Canada. J. Power Sources 155, 297–310 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sullivan, J.L., Burnham, A., Wang, M.: Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission Analysis of Vehicle and Component Manufacturing, Technical Report ANL/ESD/10–6, Argonne National Lab, 2010Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang, D., Zamel, N., Jiao, K., Zhou, Y., Yu, S., Du, Q., Yin, Y.: Life cycle analysis of internal combustion engine, electric and fuel cell vehicles for China. Energy 59, 402–412 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aguirre, K., Eisenhardt, L., Lim, C., Nelson, B., Norring, A., Slowik, P., Tu, N.: Lifecycle Analysis Comparison of a Battery Electric Vehicle and a Conventional Gasoline Vehicle. University of California, Los Angeles (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hawkins, T.R., Singh, B., Majeau-Bettez, G., Stromman, A.H.: Comparative environmental life cycle assessment of conventional and electric vehicles. Int. J. Ind. Ecol. 17, 53–64 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nealer, R., Hendrickson, T.P.: Review of recent lifecycle assessments of energy and greenhouse gas emissions for electric vehicles. Curr. Sustain. Renew. Energy Rep. 2, 66–73 (2015)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Onat, N.C., Kucukvar, M., Tatari, O.: Conventional, hybrid, plug-in hybrid or electric vehicles? State-based comparative carbon and energy footprint analysis in the United States. Appl. Energy 150, 36–49 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gowri Asaithambi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Martin Treiber
    • 2
  • Venkatesan Kanagaraj
    • 2
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Technology TirupatiChittoorIndia
  2. 2.Technical University of DresdenDresdenGermany

Personalised recommendations