Advertisement

Online and Offline Stream Runtime Verification of Synchronous Systems

  • César SánchezEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11237)

Abstract

We revisit Stream Runtime Verification for synchronous systems. Stream Runtime Verification (SRV) is a declarative formalism to express monitors using streams, which aims to be a simple and expressive specification language. The goal of SRV is to allow engineers to describe both correctness/failure assertions and interesting statistical measures for system profiling and coverage analysis. The monitors generated are useful for testing, under actual deployment, and to analyze logs.

The main observation that enables SRV is that the steps in the algorithms to monitor temporal logics (which generate Boolean verdicts) can be generalized to compute statistics of the trace if a different data domain is used. Hence, the fundamental idea of SRV is to separate the temporal dependencies in the monitoring algorithm from the concrete operations to be performed at each step.

In this paper we revisit the pioneer SRV specification language Lola and present in detail the online and offline monitoring algorithms. The algorithm for online monitoring Lola specifications uses a partial evaluation strategy, by incrementally constructing output streams from input streams, maintaining a storage of partially evaluated expressions. We identify syntactically a class of specifications for which the online algorithm is trace length independent, that is, the memory requirement does not depend on the length of the input streams. Then, we extend the principles of the online algorithm to create an efficient offline monitoring algorithm for large traces, which consist on scheduling trace length independent passes on a dumped log.

Keywords

Runtime verification Formal verification Formal methods Stream runtime verification synchronous systems Dynamic analysis Monitoring 

References

  1. 1.
    Asarin, E., Caspi, P., Maler, O.: Timed regular expressions. J. ACM 49(2), 172–206 (2002)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barringer, H., Falcone, Y., Havelund, K., Reger, G., Rydeheard, D.: Quantified event automata: towards expressive and efficient runtime monitors. In: Giannakopoulou, D., Méry, D. (eds.) FM 2012. LNCS, vol. 7436, pp. 68–84. Springer, Heidelberg (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32759-9_9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barringer, H., Goldberg, A., Havelund, K., Sen, K.: Rule-based runtime verification. In: Steffen, B., Levi, G. (eds.) VMCAI 2004. LNCS, vol. 2937, pp. 44–57. Springer, Heidelberg (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-24622-0_5CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bartocci, E., Falcone, Y. (eds.): Lectures on Runtime Verification. LNCS, vol. 10457. Springer, Cham (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75632-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bauer, A., Küster, J.-C., Vegliach, G.: From propositional to first-order monitoring. In: Legay, A., Bensalem, S. (eds.) RV 2013. LNCS, vol. 8174, pp. 59–75. Springer, Heidelberg (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-40787-1_4CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bauer, A., Leucker, M., Schallhart, C.: Runtime verification for LTL and TLTL. ACM T. Softw. Eng. Meth. 20(4), 14 (2011)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bauer, A., Leucker, M., Schallhart, C.: Monitoring of real-time properties. In: Arun-Kumar, S., Garg, N. (eds.) FSTTCS 2006. LNCS, vol. 4337, pp. 260–272. Springer, Heidelberg (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1007/11944836_25CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bauer, A., Leucker, M., Schallhart, C.: The good, the bad, and the ugly, but how ugly is ugly? In: Sokolsky, O., Taşıran, S. (eds.) RV 2007. LNCS, vol. 4839, pp. 126–138. Springer, Heidelberg (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-77395-5_11CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Berry, G.: The foundations of Esterel. In: Plotkin, G., Stirling, C., Tofte, M. (eds.) Proof, Language, and Interaction: Essays in Honour of Robin Milner, pp. 425–454. MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bozzelli, L., Sánchez, C.: Foundations of Boolean stream runtime verification. In: Bonakdarpour, B., Smolka, S.A. (eds.) RV 2014. LNCS, vol. 8734, pp. 64–79. Springer, Cham (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11164-3_6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Convent, L., Hungerecker, S., Leucker, M., Scheffel, T., Schmitz, M., Thoma, D.: TeSSLa: temporal stream-based specification language. In: Proceedings of the 21st Brazilian Symposium on Formal Methods (SBMF 2018). LNCS. Springer (2018)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D’Angelo, et al.: LOLA: runtime monitoring of synchronous systems. In: Proceedings of TIME 2005, pp. 166–174. IEEE CS Press (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eisner, C., Fisman, D., Havlicek, J., Lustig, Y., McIsaac, A., Van Campenhout, D.: Reasoning with temporal logic on truncated paths. In: Hunt, W.A., Somenzi, F. (eds.) CAV 2003. LNCS, vol. 2725, pp. 27–39. Springer, Heidelberg (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-45069-6_3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Faymonville, P., Finkbeiner, B., Schirmer, S., Torfah, H.: A stream-based specification language for network monitoring. In: Falcone, Y., Sánchez, C. (eds.) RV 2016. LNCS, vol. 10012, pp. 152–168. Springer, Cham (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46982-9_10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Faymonville, P., Finkbeiner, B., Schwenger, M., Torfah, H.: Real-time stream-based monitoring. CoRR, abs/1711.03829 (2017)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Finkbeiner, B., Sankaranarayanan, S., Sipma, H.B.: Collecting statistics over runtime executions. ENTCS 70(4), 36–54 (2002)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gautier, T., Le Guernic, P., Besnard, L.: SIGNAL: a declarative language for synchronous programming of real-time systems. In: Kahn, G. (ed.) FPCA 1987. LNCS, vol. 274, pp. 257–277. Springer, Heidelberg (1987).  https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-18317-5_15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Goodloe, A.E., Pike, L.: Monitoring distributed real-time systems: a survey and future directions. Technical report, NASA Langley Research Center (2010)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gorostiaga, F., Sánchez, C.: Striver: stream runtime verification for real-time event-streams. In: Colombo, C., Leucker, M. (eds.) RV 2018. LNCS, vol. 11237, pp. 282–298. Springer, Cham (2018)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Halbwachs, N., Caspi, P., Raymond, P., Pilaud, D.: The synchronous data-flow programming language LUSTRE. Proc. IEEE 79(9), 1305–1320 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Havelund, K., Goldberg, A.: Verify your runs. In: Meyer, B., Woodcock, J. (eds.) VSTTE 2005. LNCS, vol. 4171, pp. 374–383. Springer, Heidelberg (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69149-5_40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Havelund, K., Roşu, G.: Synthesizing monitors for safety properties. In: Katoen, J.-P., Stevens, P. (eds.) TACAS 2002. LNCS, vol. 2280, pp. 342–356. Springer, Heidelberg (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-46002-0_24CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Leucker, M., Sánchez, C., Scheffel, T., Schmitz, M., Schramm, A.: TeSSLa: runtime verification of non-synchronized real-time streams. In: Proceedings of the 33rd Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC 2018). ACM (2018)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Leucker, M., Schallhart, C.: A brief account of runtime verification. J. Logic Algebr. Progr. 78(5), 293–303 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pike, L., Goodloe, A., Morisset, R., Niller, S.: Copilot: a hard real-time runtime monitor. In: Barringer, H., et al. (eds.) RV 2010. LNCS, vol. 6418, pp. 345–359. Springer, Heidelberg (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-16612-9_26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pnueli, A., Zaks, A.: PSL model checking and run-time verification via testers. In: Misra, J., Nipkow, T., Sekerinski, E. (eds.) FM 2006. LNCS, vol. 4085, pp. 573–586. Springer, Heidelberg (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1007/11813040_38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Roşu, G., Havelund, K.: Rewriting-based techniques for runtime verification. Autom. Softw. Eng. 12(2), 151–197 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sen, K., Roşu, G.: Generating optimal monitors for extended regular expressions. ENTCS 89(2), 226–245 (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IMDEA Software InstituteMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations