Efficient Monitoring of Real Driving Emissions

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11237)


The diesel emissions scandal has demonstrated that real-world behavior of systems can deviate excessively from the behavior shown under certification conditions. In response to the massive revelation of fraudulent behavior programmed inside diesel cars across Europe, the European Union has defined a procedure to test for Real Driving Emissions (RDE) [22]. This is gradually being put into force since September 2017 [23]. To avoid misinterpretation, the RDE regulation comes with an informal but relatively precise specification that spells out in how far a real trip, i.e., a trajectory driven with a car, constitutes an RDE test, or not. This paper presents a formalization of the RDE test procedure which is used to monitor for RDE violations at runtime and thereby fosters perspicuity. To this end, we extend the stream-based specification language Lola [5, 10] with sliding aggregation windows. We evaluate the approach experimentally using data from real trips and further present a low-cost variant of the RDE test which can be conducted without expensive test equipment solely with on-board sensors.


Automotive testing Runtime monitoring Specification languages Software doping Perspicious systems 


  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    Alur, R., Feder, T., Henzinger, T.A.: The benefits of relaxing punctuality. J. ACM 43(1), 116–146 (1996)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Annpureddy, Y., Liu, C., Fainekos, G., Sankaranarayanan, S.: S-TaLiRo: a tool for temporal logic falsification for hybrid systems. In: Abdulla, P.A., Leino, K.R.M. (eds.) TACAS 2011. LNCS, vol. 6605, pp. 254–257. Springer, Heidelberg (2011). Scholar
  4. 4.
    Audi: Technische Daten - Audi A7–3.0 TDI 200 kW s-tronic quattro EU6W, March 2015Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D’Angelo, et al.: LOLA: runtime monitoring of synchronous systems. In: 12th International Symposium on Temporal Representation and Reasoning (TIME 2005), pp. 166–174. IEEE Computer Society Press, June 2005Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D’Argenio, P.R., Barthe, G., Biewer, S., Finkbeiner, B., Hermanns, H.: Is your software on dope? In: Yang, H. (ed.) ESOP 2017. LNCS, vol. 10201, pp. 83–110. Springer, Heidelberg (2017). Scholar
  7. 7.
    Donzé, A., Ferrère, T., Maler, O.: Efficient robust monitoring for STL. In: Sharygina, N., Veith, H. (eds.) CAV 2013. LNCS, vol. 8044, pp. 264–279. Springer, Heidelberg (2013). Scholar
  8. 8.
    Donzé, A., Maler, O., Bartocci, E., Nickovic, D., Grosu, R., Smolka, S.: On temporal logic and signal processing. In: Chakraborty, S., Mukund, M. (eds.) ATVA 2012. LNCS, pp. 92–106. Springer, Heidelberg (2012). Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fainekos, G.E., Pappas, G.J.: Robustness of temporal logic specifications for continuous-time signals. Theor. Comput. Sci. 410(42), 4262–4291 (2009)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Faymonville, P., Finkbeiner, B., Schirmer, S., Torfah, H.: A stream-based specification language for network monitoring. In: Falcone, Y., Sánchez, C. (eds.) RV 2016. LNCS, vol. 10012, pp. 152–168. Springer, Cham (2016). Scholar
  11. 11.
    Faymonville, P., Finkbeiner, B., Schwenger, M., Torfah, H.: Real-time stream-based monitoring. CoRR abs/1711.03829 (2017).
  12. 12.
    Hirzel, M., Schneider, S., Tangwongsan, K.: Sliding-window aggregation algorithms: tutorial. In: Proceedings of the 11th ACM International Conference on Distributed and Event-Based Systems, DEBS 2017, pp. 11–14. ACM, New York (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maler, O., Nickovic, D.: Monitoring temporal properties of continuous signals. In: Lakhnech, Y., Yovine, S. (eds.) FORMATS/FTRTFT -2004. LNCS, vol. 3253, pp. 152–166. Springer, Heidelberg (2004). Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maler, O., Nickovic, D., Pnueli, A.: Checking temporal properties of discrete, timed and continuous behaviors. In: Avron, A., Dershowitz, N., Rabinovich, A. (eds.) Pillars of Computer Science. LNCS, vol. 4800, pp. 475–505. Springer, Heidelberg (2008). Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pnueli, A.: The temporal logic of programs. In: 18th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, Providence, Rhode Island, USA, 31 October–1 November 1977, pp. 46–57. IEEE Computer Society (1977),
  16. 16.
    Pnueli, A.: The temporal semantics of concurrent programs. Theor. Comput. Sci. 13, 45–60 (1981)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rizk, A., Batt, G., Fages, F., Soliman, S.: On a continuous degree of satisfaction of temporal logic formulae with applications to systems biology. In: Heiner, M., Uhrmacher, A.M. (eds.) CMSB 2008. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 5307, pp. 251–268. Springer, Heidelberg (2008). Scholar
  18. 18.
    The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union: 98/69/EC, October 1998.
  19. 19.
    The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union: Directive 98/69/EC of the European parliament and of the council. Official Journal of the European Communities (1998),
  20. 20.
    The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union: Directive 2005/55/EC, September 2005.
  21. 21.
    The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union: Commission Regulation (EU) 2007/715, June 2007.
  22. 22.
    The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union: Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/427, March 2016.
  23. 23.
    The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union: Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/1151, June 2017.
  24. 24.
    Traufetter, G.: Audi manipulierte beliebtes Dienstwagenmodell - Produktion gestoppt, May 2018.
  25. 25.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Emission Facts: Average Carbon Dioxide Emissions Resulting from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel, February 2005.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Saarland UniversitySaarbrückenGermany

Personalised recommendations