HPV-Associated Anal Cancer in the HIV/AIDS Patient

  • Chia-Ching J. Wang
  • Joel M. PalefskyEmail author
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 177)


The prevalence of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) remain high among HIV-infected individuals on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The incidence of HPV-related anal cancers has continued to increase since the introduction of ART. Therefore, ART may confer only limited benefit with respect to reducing the risk of anal HSIL and cancer. Efforts are in progress to define the efficacy of secondary prevention programs for prevention of anal cancer. In the modern ART era, anal cancer recurrence and survival outcomes are similar in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients, but HIV-infected patients may experience more toxicities. This article reviews the current literature on HPV-associated anal cancer in the HIV-infected population, including epidemiology, screening, clinical characteristics, and treatment outcomes.


HPV Anal cancer HIV Immunosuppression Vaccination 



Dr. Wang has no relevant disclosures.

Dr. Palefsky discloses that he is a member of a Merck scientific advisory board, and receives travel support form Merck. He receives travel and research grant support from Merck. He is a consultant to Ubiome, Agenovir, and Antiva Biosciences.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of MedicineZuckerberg San Francisco General HospitalSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of MedicineUniversity of California at San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.San FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.San FranciscoUSA

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