Automatic Composition of Rough Solution Possibilities in the Target Planning of Factory Planning Projects by Means of Combinatory Logic

  • Jan WinkelsEmail author
  • Julian Graefenstein
  • Tristan Schäfer
  • David Scholz
  • Jakob Rehof
  • Michael Henke
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11247)


Increasing competition, stronger customer focus, shorter product lifecycles and accelerated technological developments imply that companies are faced with the challenge of adapting their own production to the circumstances at ever shorter intervals. The factory planning project is becoming increasingly complex, but there is less and less time available for adaptation. Particularly in the initial planning phase, targets are defined without reliable planning information for the further course, which have far-reaching consequences for the outcome of a successful planning. This paper shows a possibility to generate meaningful solution alternatives at an early stage of the target planning in order to enable an efficient planning process in terms of time and costs. With the help of a constraint-based variant compilation on the basis of previously defined target and frame parameters as well as existing information on the current factory system, various possible solution variants for target planning are to be created. A specific use case scenario was used to develop and test the presented methodology. By comparing combinations of the most diverse possible solutions, the use of a combinatory logic approach enables the first rough and plausible solution variants to be generated automatically, on the basis of which the detailed planning process for achieving the determined solution variant can be created. This way, planning bottlenecks due to the wrong choice of variants as well as large time expenditure for the creation of solution variants can be avoided.


Automatic composition Combinatory logic Factory planning Target planning 



The study presented in this paper was partly funded by the GRK 2193 ( and the Center of Excellence for Logistics and IT ( located in Dortmund.


  1. 1.
    Brankamp, K.: Zielplanung. In: Eversheim, W., Schuh, G. (eds.) Produktion und Management 3. Gestaltung von Produktionssystemen. Hütte, pp. 9.31–9.39. Springer, Heidelberg (1999). Scholar
  2. 2.
    Both, P.V., Rexroth, K.: SIAS – Konzeption eines planungsunterstützendenWerkzeuges für die Zielplanung. In: Knoll, M., Oertel, B. (eds.) Dienstleistungen für die energieeffiziente Stadt, pp. 109–130. Springer Spektrum, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aggteleky, B.: Fabrikplanung. Werksentwicklung und Betriebsrationalisierung, 2nd edn. Hanser, München (1987)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pawellek, G.: Ganzheitliche Fabrikplanung. Grundlagen, Vorgehensweise, EDV-Unterstützung, 2nd edn. VDI-Buch. Springer, Berlin (2014)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Grundig, C.-G.: Fabrikplanung. Planungssystematik - Methoden - Anwendungen, 5th edn. Hanser, München (2015)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baumeister, M.: Fabrikplanung im turbulenten Umfeld. Methodik zur Zielplanung einer Fabrik unter Berücksichtigung eines turbulenten Unternehmensumfeldes und der übergeordneten Unternehmensziele. Zugl.: Karlsruhe, Univ., Diss., 2003. Forschungsberichte aus dem Institut für Werkzeugmaschinen und Betriebstechnik der Universität Karlsruhe, vol. 115. Inst. für Werkzeugmaschinen und Betriebstechnik, Karlsruhe (2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hawer, S., Ilmer, P., Reinhart, G.: Klassifizierung unscharfer Planungsdaten in der Fabrikplanung. ZWF (2015). Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hilchner, R.: Typenorientiertes Lösungsraum-Management in der Fabrikplanung. Zugl.: Aachen, Techn. Hochsch., Diss., 2012, 1st edn. Edition Wissenschaft Apprimus, vol. 2012,13. Apprimus-Verl., Aachen (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schulte, C.: Logistik. Wege zur Optimierung der Supply Chain, 7th edn. Vahlens Handbücher der Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften (2016)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eversheim, W., Schuh, G. (eds.): Produktion und Management 3. Gestaltung von Produktionssystemen. Hütte. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kettner, H., Schmidt, J., Greim, H.-R.: Leitfaden der systematischen Fabrikplanung. Hanser, München (1984)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rexroth, K., Brüggemann, T., Both, P.V.: Methodology of target and requirements management for complex systems concerning the application field of an energy-efficient city. In: Schrenk, M. (ed.) REAL CORP 2009: cities 3.0 - smart, sustainable, integrative. Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Urban Planning, Regional Development and Information Society; Beiträge zur 14. Internatinalen Konferenz zu Stadtplanung, Regionalentwicklung und Informationsgesellschaft; [strategies, concepts and technologies for planning the urban future; 22–25 April 2009, Centre de Disseny de Sitges, Catalonia, Spain; Tagungsband], pp. 353–359Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Krunke, M.: Reifegradmanagement in der Fabrikplanung. Dissertation, RWTH Aachen (2017)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Girmscheid, G.: Projektabwicklung in der Bauwirtschaft - prozessorientiert. Wege zur Win-Win-Situation für Auftraggeber und Auftragnehmer, 5th edn. VDI-Buch (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Welge, M.K., Al-Laham, A., Eulerich, M.: Strategisches Management. Grundlagen - Prozess - Implementierung, 7th edn (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wilson, I.: Strategic planning isn’t dead—it changed. Long Range Plan. (1994). Scholar
  17. 17.
    Glaister, K.W., Falshaw, J.R.: Strategic Planning. Still Going Strong? Long Range Plan. (1999). Scholar
  18. 18.
    Frentzel, W.Y., Bryson, J.M., Crosby, B.C.: Strategic Planning in the Military. Long Range Planning (2000). Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wolf, C., Floyd, S.W.: Strategic planning research: toward a theory-driven agenda. J. Manag. (2016). Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liedtka, R.M.D.O.J., Jacobs, D.C., Heracleous, L.: Strategizing through playful design. J. Bus. Strat. (2007). Scholar
  21. 21.
    Graefenstein, J., Scholz, D., Henke, M., Winkels, J., Rehof, J.: Intelligente Orchestrierung von Planungsprozessen. ZWF (2017). Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gulwani, S.: Dimensions in program synthesis. In: Proceedings of the 12th International ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Declarative Programming, pp. 13–24 (2010)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gulwani, S., Polozov, O., Singh, R.: Program synthesis. Found. Trends® Program. Lang. 4(1–2), 1–119 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roser, S., Lautenbacher, F., Bauer, B.: Generation of workflow code from DSMs. In: Proceedings of the 7th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling (2007)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Naujokat, S., Lybecait, M., Kopetzki, D., Steffen, B.: CINCO: a simplicity-driven approach to full generation of domain-specific graphical modeling tools. Int. J. Softw. Tools Technol. Transf. (2017). Scholar
  26. 26.
    Naujokat, S., Neubauer, J., Margaria, T., Steffen, B.: Meta-level reuse for mastering domain specialization. In: Margaria, T., Steffen, B. (eds.) Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation: Discussion, Dissemination, Applications, pp. 218–237. Springer, Cham (2016). Scholar
  27. 27.
    Steffen, B., Naujokat, S.: Archimedean points: the essence for mastering change. In: Steffen, B. (ed.) Transactions on Foundations for Mastering Change I. LNCS, vol. 9960, pp. 22–46. Springer, Cham (2016). Scholar
  28. 28.
    Boßelmann, S., et al.: DIME: a programming-less modeling environment for web applications. In: Margaria, T., Steffen, B. (eds.) ISoLA 2016. LNCS, vol. 9953, pp. 809–832. Springer, Cham (2016). Scholar
  29. 29.
    Awad, A., Goré, R., Thomson, J., Weidlich, M.: An iterative approach for business process template synthesis from compliance rules. In: Advanced Information Systems Engineering, pp. 406–421 (2011)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yu, J., Han, Y.-B., Han, J., Jin, Y., Falcarin, P., Morisio, M.: Synthesizing service composition models on the basis of temporal business rules. J. Comput. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 885–894 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lamprecht, A.-L., Naujokat, S., Margaria, T., Steffen, B.: Synthesis-based loose programming. In: 2010 Seventh International Conference on the Quality of Information and Communications Technology (QUATIC), pp. 262–267 (2010)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Alur, R., et al.: Syntax-guided synthesis. Form. Methods Comput.-Aided Des. (FMCAD) 2013, 1–8 (2013)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Srinivas, Y.V., Jüllig, R.: Specware: formal support for composing software. In: International Conference on Mathematics of Program Construction, pp. 399–422 (1995)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Le, V., Gulwani, S.: FlashExtract: a framework for data extraction by examples. In: ACM SIGPLAN Notices, pp. 542–553 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Feser, J.K., Chaudhuri, S., Dillig, I.: Synthesizing data structure transformations from input-output examples. In: ACM SIGPLAN Notices, pp. 229–239 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Solar-Lezama, A., Tancau, L., Bodik, R., Seshia, S., Saraswat, V.: Combinatorial sketching for finite programs. ACM Sigplan Not. 41(11), 404–415 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Grambow, G., Oberhauser, R., Reichert, M.: Semantically-driven workflow generation using declarative modeling for processes in software engineering. In: Proceedings of EDOCW 2011, pp. 164–173. IEEE Computer Society (2011)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Parisotto, E., Mohamed, A.-R., Singh, R., Li, L., Zhou, D., Kohli, P.: Neuro-symbolic program synthesis. arXiv preprint arXiv:1611.01855 (2016)
  39. 39.
    Ilghami, O., Nau, D.S.: A general approach to synthesize problem-specific planners. University of Maryland, College Park, Department of Computer Science (2003)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Becker, M., Gilham, L., Smith, D.R., et al.: Planware II. Synthesis of schedulers for complex resource systems (2003)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Blaine, L., Gilham, L., Liu, J., Smith, D.R., Westfold, S.: Planware-domain-specific synthesis of high-performance schedulers. In: Proceedings of 13th IEEE International Conference on Automated Software Engineering, pp. 270–279 (1998)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Reichert, M., et al.: Enabling Poka-Yoke workflows with the AristaFlow BPM Suite (2009)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pohl, K., Böckle, G., van der Linden, F.J.: Software Product Line Engineering – Foundations, Principles, and Techniques. Springer, Heidelberg (2005). Scholar
  44. 44.
    Apel, S., Batory, D., Kästner, C., Saake, G.: Feature-Oriented Software Product Lines. Springer, Heidelberg (2013). Scholar
  45. 45.
    van Gurp, J., Bosch, J., Svahnberg, M.: On the notion of variability in software product lines. In: Proceedings of Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture, pp. 45–54 (2001)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Thüm, T., Kästner, C., Benduhn, F., Meinicke, J., Saake, G., Leich, T.: FeatureIDE: an extensible framework for feature-oriented software development. Sci. Comput. Program. 79, 70–85 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rosa, M.L., van der Aalst, W.M.P., Dumas, M., Milani, F.P.: Business process variability modeling: a survey. ACM Comput. Surv. (CSUR) 50(1), 2 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bessai, J., Dudenhefner, A., Düdder, B., Martens, M., Rehof, J.: Combinatory logic synthesizer. In: 6th International Symposium on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation, ISoLA 2014, Corfu, Greece, 8–11 October 2014, pp. 26–40 (2014). Scholar
  49. 49.
    Coppo, M., Dezani-Ciancaglini, M.: An extension of basic functionality theory for lambda-calculus. Notre Dame J. Form. Log. 21, 685–693 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Curry, H.B.: Functionality in combinatory logic. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 20(11), 584–590 (1934)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Howard, W.A.: The formulae-as-types notion of construction. To HB Curry: Essays Comb. Log. Lambda Calc. Formalism 44, 479–490 (1980)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Düdder, B., Martens, M., Rehof, J., Urzyczyn, P.: Bounded combinatory logic. In: Proceedings of Computer Science Logic, CSL 2012, pp. 243–258. Schloss Dagstuhl (2012)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bessai, J., Dudenhefner, A., Düdder, B., Martens, M., Rehof, J.: Combinatory process synthesis. In: Proceedings of 7th International Symposium on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation: Foundational Techniques, ISoLA 2016, Imperial, Corfu, Greece, Part I, 10–14 October 2016, pp. 266–281 (2016).
  54. 54.
    Bessai, J., Düdder, B., Heinemann, G., Rehof, J.: Towards Language-Independent Code Synthesis (2018)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kang, K.C., Cohen, S.G., Hess, J.A., Novak, W.E., Peterson, A.S.: Feature-oriented domain analysis (FODA) feasibility study. Technical Report CMU/SEI-90-TR-021, SEI, Carnegie Mellon University, November 1990Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Winkels
    • 1
    Email author
  • Julian Graefenstein
    • 2
  • Tristan Schäfer
    • 1
  • David Scholz
    • 2
  • Jakob Rehof
    • 1
  • Michael Henke
    • 2
  1. 1.TU DortmundDortmundGermany
  2. 2.TU DortmundDortmundGermany

Personalised recommendations