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Carrot Volatile Terpene Metabolism: Terpene Diversity and Biosynthetic Genes

Part of the Compendium of Plant Genomes book series (CPG)

Abstract

Carrot is considered one of the leading horticultural crops in the world in terms of its nutritional value, health benefits, and unique flavor based on its high content of carotenoids and volatile aroma compounds. Terpenes such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes represent some of the predominant volatile compounds that contribute to carrot aroma and flavor. Variation of terpene composition based on genotypic differences or environmental factors has significant effects on taste perception by consumers and, therefore, is a critical quality attribute for carrot breeders and growers. Surprisingly, little is known about the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes in carrots and the various enzymes involved in their formation. In this chapter, we provide an overview of volatile terpene sampling and terpene diversity in different D. carota genotypes. Facilitated by the recent elucidation of the carrot genome, we further describe and discuss latest findings of the function of genes and enzymes in the terpene synthase family involved in the biosynthesis of carrot terpene volatiles.

Keywords

  • Carrot root
  • Expression
  • Flavor
  • Terpene synthase

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Fig. 16.5

Abbreviations

DMAPP:

Dimethylallyl diphosphate

FPP:

Farnesyl diphosphate

GC/MS:

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

GGPP:

Geranylgeranyl diphosphate

GPP:

Geranyl diphosphate

HS:

Headspace

IDS:

Isoprenyl diphosphate synthases

MEP:

Methylerythritol phosphate

MVA:

Mevalonate

SPME:

Solid-phase micro-extraction

TPS:

Terpene synthase

VOC:

Volatile organic compound

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by grant IS-4745-14R from the US-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund (to M.I. and D.T.).

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Correspondence to Mwafaq Ibdah or Dorothea Tholl .

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Ibdah, M., Muchlinski, A., Yahyaa, M., Nawade, B., Tholl, D. (2019). Carrot Volatile Terpene Metabolism: Terpene Diversity and Biosynthetic Genes. In: Simon, P., Iorizzo, M., Grzebelus, D., Baranski, R. (eds) The Carrot Genome. Compendium of Plant Genomes. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-03389-7_16

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