The Impact of Primary Relationships and Early Experiences in Toddlerhood: 12 to 18 Months

  • Ann M. MastergeorgeEmail author
  • Katherine W. PaschallEmail author


The importance of responsive early relationships and consistent and positive early learning opportunities is critical for the developmental period of toddlerhood. This chapter will discuss empirical research as it is applied to the field of early development and will further explicate both positive and adverse experiences that impact developmental trajectories. Understanding domains of early social-emotional development in the context of caregiving relationships and child care will be highlighted, as well as the influences of individuals and environments on children’s developmental outcomes. The impact of brain development, developmental hazards, and factors that can buffer early developmental pathways will be reviewed within a frame of prevention and early intervention, as well as the promotion of rich, high-quality experiences required for well-being of young children.


Early experiences Toddlerhood Attachment Caregiving environments Brain development Adverse early experiences Infant-toddler assessments Family relationships Child care practices 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human Development and Family StudiesTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA
  2. 2.Child TrendsBethesdaUSA

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