Introducing Political Entrepreneurship



This chapter offers a practical theory of Political Entrepreneurship. Building on classical and newer definitions of Entrepreneurship as well as Social and Civic Entrepreneurship, it highlights similarities as well as differences between these concepts, and shows Political Entrepreneurship to be the “third wave” of Entrepreneurship. Political Entrepreneurship is about founding new parties, a way to transform political systems from within. Using characteristics of new parties as outlined by Bolleyer (2013), the seven political start-ups portrayed are then analysed accordingly: which ones were founded by outsiders versus insiders, which ones had media access, and which ones have been rooted in civil society. Also, the seven political start-ups are analysed according to their developmental stage: from “founded” through “entered Parliament” to “in Government”. Finally, the chapter offers practical insights into what political start-ups share with their cousins in the business and social sectors.


Political Entrepreneurship Civic Entrepreneurship Bolley Social Entrepreneurship American Political Development 
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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NEOS LabViennaAustria

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