Microbial Symbionts of Antarctic Marine Benthic Invertebrates
The microbial colonization of living surfaces may be affected by several environmental and biological factors and may play an important role in the development and evolution of the holobiont. Antarctica, as an extreme and isolated environment, offers a unique opportunity to study the peculiar and often strict interactions that are established between a benthic host and its symbionts. Despite this, to date the association between microbes and Antarctic benthic invertebrates has been only seldom investigated, resulting in fragmented and poor information. This chapter will be devoted to showcase our current knowledge on prokaryotic (Bacteria and Archaea) and eukaryotic (yeasts and diatoms) microbial symbionts of Antarctic benthic invertebrate hosts, including mainly Porifera and, at to a lesser extent, Cnidaria, Echinodermata and Annelida.
KeywordsMicrobial symbionts Benthic invertebrates Microbial diversity Host-specificity Microbiome
This chapter was supported by grants from the Italian Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide, Project PNRA16_00020, “Antarctic Porifera: Hot-spots for prokaryotic diversity and biotechnological potentialities” (PEA Code 2016/AZ1.08). All images but Fig. 13.1 have been made by Stefano Schiaparelli during different dives in Tethys Bay (Terra Nova Bay) (© PNRA). The PNRA project GEOSMART (2013/AZ2.06, PI Paolo Montagna) is acknowledged for the ROV image of Fig. 13.1, taken by Simonepietro Canese in Adelie Cove (Terra Nova Bay).
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