The Effect of Toxin and Human Impact on Marine Ecosystem

Part of the Advances in Mechanics and Mathematics book series (AMMA, volume 41)


We formed a plankton-nutrient interaction model which consists of phytoplankton, herbivorous zooplankton, dissolved limiting nutrient with general nutrient uptake functions, instantaneous nutrient recycling, and harvesting on plankton population. Afterward, we modified and expanded the primary model by considering the effect of sunlight, additional nutrients, harmful chemicals, and carbon dioxide into account. Phytoplankton obtain carbohydrate supply from the carbon dioxide in the air, and the overall nutrient uptake rate increases in the presence of sunlight. So, the effect of sunlight and additional food is discussed. Hypothetically, carbon dioxide accelerates the growth of phytoplankton but we considered some limiting factors which abate the process. Some assumptions were made to construct the system equations. We assumed that phytoplankton releases toxic substances to defend themselves from the predation of zooplankton. The entire system was studied analytically, and the threshold values for the existence and stability of various steady states were discussed. Further, we discussed whether pollution emissions can variate the dynamics of the primary system, bring in recurrence bloom therein toxic phytoplankton can be applied to a great extent to sustain system stability.



The research is partially supported by the University Grants Commission, New Delhi [grant number MRP-MAJ-MATH-2013-609].


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsUniversity of KalyaniKalyaniIndia

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