Skip to main content

Literature Review

  • 876 Accesses

Part of the International Series on Computer Entertainment and Media Technology book series (ISCEMT)

Abstract

In this chapter, I review and analyse the literature from various fields under study and I integrate these respective bodies of work for the purpose of this project. The chapter is organised in five sections. Section 2.1 studies the political-economic angle of the research through foundations of political economy, political economy of the media, media and technology, the globalisation discourse and the context of China. Section 2.2 specifically addresses IP literature, its central position within the creative industries field, and its recent evolution. Section 2.3 reviews the tradition of audience research and identifies bridges to integrate this separate body of work with the fields of political economy, creative industries and IP. Section 2.4 formulates a framework that integrates the above disciplines in the context of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) production and crowdfunding/crowdsourcing. Section 2.5 maps out and justifies the use of the methodologies and methods used throughout the research.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-02468-0_2
  • Chapter length: 57 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-02468-0
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Notes

  1. 1.

    The important topic of information inequalities falls outside of the remits of this work because most of the focus of the research at hand is on individuals who already have access to Internet and who are sufficiently literate to navigate it.

  2. 2.

    Bourdieu does not take into account cultural resources or gender differences, for instance.

  3. 3.

    These themes will be developed in Chaps. 3 and 4.

  4. 4.

    Notably, the dispute ended in 2009 through the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (Garner 2015). The same year, a US equity firm was investing US$75 m in Alibaba on its tenth anniversary.

  5. 5.

    At this juncture, it could also be argued that the present book, about China, which is delivered mostly in English, could place its argument automatically in a Western cultural stance. However, in order to limit this cultural bias I made a balanced use of scholarships both from Western and Chinese scholars.

  6. 6.

    In Chaps. 3 and 4, I will take a historical approach to the political economy of China to frame its context for the purpose of this research.

  7. 7.

    Including labour, technology and processes needed to produce these creative products.

  8. 8.

    The MPAA is a lobbying group representing mostly Hollywood based studios’ commercial interests.

  9. 9.

    As seen in Sect. 2.1.4.

  10. 10.

    The Department of Propaganda has been in place for 67 years and cannot be transformed overnight.

  11. 11.

    This legal framework did not exist until 1990 (Montgomery 2010).

  12. 12.

    This was one of the prerequisites of the entry of China in the WTO in 2001.

  13. 13.

    Sometimes they tried to initiate these changes: see Sony’s Betamax case (McDonald 2007).

  14. 14.

    Refer to the legal case: In A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 239 F.3d 1004 (2001).

  15. 15.

    More recent cases are mobile phones and mobile devices for example.

  16. 16.

    In the same way as technological disruptions take place, it is worth mentioning that some of the largest IP rights holders were once pirates themselves: Hollywood was created on the back of technologies stolen from Edison who himself owed a lot to the Lumière brothers, Méliès and Tesla (Johns 2010).

  17. 17.

    See Appendix 2 for the case study of Movielink.

  18. 18.

    These manufacturers sometimes merged horizontally such as Sony or Matsushita with Columbia and Universal.

  19. 19.

    As seen previously in Sect. 2.1.1.

  20. 20.

    Ruggiero criticised the UGT, while Gaunlett criticised the effects theory in a series of essays and argued that it did not take into account viewing contexts since most research was laboratory-based.

  21. 21.

    Apart from the research conducted and commercial data and metrics collected by large online corporations such as YT, Baidu or Alibaba (Keane 2015). It is therefore paramount to collect independent data about Chinese audiences (be it surveying, ethnographic research or works on audience behaviours) to be able to measure the evolution of such trends.

  22. 22.

    According to Napoli, this assumes a former divide between producers and consumers of content (Napoli 2011).

  23. 23.

    This is what Lobato described as piracy as access, enterprise, and authorship (Lobato 2012).

  24. 24.

    Here ‘hype’ is used in the terms defines by Austin: as expectation and emotional engagement towards a film (Austin 2012, 30).

  25. 25.

    Except for Kickstarter and Indiegogo that are already established and focus their efforts on crowdfunding, for which they receive financial rewards (not from crowdsourcing), a lot of entrants have already exited the participatory arena. For instance, Wreckamovie.com whose motto was ‘Wreck Hollywood one movie at a time’ and which was mentioned in Baranova and Lugmayr’s article in 2013 has already disappeared at the time of writing this book. The following message can be seen on their remaining Facebook page: ‘WreckAmovie might be done but the spirit lives on!’

  26. 26.

    Guédon stresses the point that CCs is ‘not equivalent to public domain’ (Guédon 2003, 192).

  27. 27.

    John has cautioned that there has been an increasing use of the word ‘sharing’ by the online media industries in an attempt to cover up their commercial activities into an illusion of collaborative community. This is the case for example of websites such as Facebook, YouTube, Flickr, Twitter (John 2012).

  28. 28.

    Megaupload was easily accessible to the public while Silk Road was operated on the dark web as a Tor service.

  29. 29.

    Although Bourdieu admits that economic capital is the dominant one (Bourdieu 1979).

  30. 30.

    Dr. Philip Lee is both a scholar and a renowned industry practitioner who has amongst his numerous credits: Associate Producer for Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000), Line Producer on The Dark Knight (2008) and Executive Producer for Cloud Atlas (2012) and The Revenant (2015).

  31. 31.

    Bauwens and Kostakis suggest a maximum scale of 1–8 wage differential for fair capital redistribution (Bauwens and Kostakis 2014, 67).

  32. 32.

    Except for Yulebao, which will be analysed in more detail in Chap. 5. But I prefer to call Yulebao a ‘VIP crowdfunding’ platform, through which only commercial films have so far been financed (Coonan 2014).

  33. 33.

    As seen in Sect. 2.2.

  34. 34.

    Refer to Sects. 2.1.4 and 2.2.2.

  35. 35.

    Issues of state control and censorship on creative content in China will be explored further in Chaps. 3 and 4.

  36. 36.

    As a side note, it is important to remind the reader at this juncture that this book is mostly concerned about young emerging urban talents who are trying to develop narrative feature films or Web/TV series independently as original long-form story-telling. These productions may also encompass all the related IP connected with the film such as music, books, video games, merchandising, and other related commercial items.

  37. 37.

    The occasional textual elements that I use may give the reader a sense of context. The meta-textual analysis is more focused on the promotional and marketing aspects of the film work under study.

  38. 38.

    China’s WTO entry.

  39. 39.

    Tencent is Alibaba’s most notable competitor in China in terms of creative content and media production, merchandising, and blockchain developments. However, as I will explain in further details from Chaps. 5, 6, and 7 with some occasional elements of comparison between Alibaba and Tencent, these two companies are not competitors in the traditional sense. For example both corporations sometimes collaborate and own shares jointly in the same affiliated companies.

  40. 40.

    Hong Kong is officially part of China but the One Child Policy has not affected the SARs (Hong Kong and Macau).

  41. 41.

    The date of the release of The Last Race and the take-over of YT by Alibaba.

  42. 42.

    The Lumière Project is a proposal. I am planning to submit the final draft of this project to SAPPRFT, Alibaba/YT, iQiyi, Tencent, LeTV and China Mobile for validation, rejection or readjustment.

References

  • Alford, William. 1995. To Steal a Book Is an Elegant Offense. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Allen, Robert, and Douglas Gomery. 1985. Film History: Theory and Practice. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Altabás Fernández, Ciro. 2014. “Autofinanciación Y Crowdfunding: Nuevas Vías de Producción, Distribución Y Exhibición Del Cine Español Independiente Tras La Crisis Financiera Española.” Historia Y Comunicación Social. 19 (March):387–99.

    Google Scholar 

  • Altenloh, Emilie. 2001. “A Sociology of Cinema: The Audience, in the 1980s. [Translated into English by Kathleen Cross].” Screen. 42 (3):249–93.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Altman, Rick. 1999. Film/Genre. London: British Film Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, Chris. 2006. The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More. New York: Hyperion.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ang, Ien. 1991. Desperately Seeking the Audience. London: Routledge.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Austin, Thomas. 2002. Hollywood, Hype and Audiences: Selling and Watching Popular Film in the 1990s. Manchester, Vancouver: Manchester University Press, University of British Columbia Press, Palgrave.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baranova, Darya, and Artur Lugmayr. 2013. “Crowd Intelligence in Independent Film Productions.” In Proceedings of the 17th International Academic MindTrek Conference., edited by Artur Lugmayr, Heljä Franssila, Hannu Kärkkäinen, and Janne Paavilainen, 182–86. Tampere, Finland: Association for Computer Machinery (ACM).

    Google Scholar 

  • Barker, Martin, and Thomas Austin. 2000. From Antz to Titanic: Reinventing Film Analysis. London: Pluto Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bassey, Michael. 1981. “Pedagogic Research; on the Relative Merits of the Search for Generalization and Study of Single Events.” Oxford Review of Education. 7 (1):73–93.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • ———. 1999. Case Study Research in Educational Settings. Buckingham: Open University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bates, Benjamin. 1988. “Information as an Economic Good: Sources of Individual and Social Value.” In The Political Economy of Information., edited by Vincent Mosco and Janet Wasko, 76–94. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bauer, Raymond. 1964. “The Obstinate Audience: The Influence Process from the Point of View of Social Communication.” American Psychologist. 19 (5):319–28.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bausinger, Hermann. 1984. “Media, Technology and Daily Life.” Media, Culture, Society. 6 (4):343–51.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bauwens, Michel, and Vasilis Kostakis. 2014. Network Society and Future Scenarios for a Collaborative Economy. Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bell, Judith. 2005. Doing Your Research Project. 4th ed. Open University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Benjamin, Walter. 1969. “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.” In Illuminations [Translation: Harry Zohn]., edited by Hannah Arendt. New Jersey: Schocken.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bennett, Tony. 1982. “Theories of the Media, Theories of Society.” In Culture, Society, and the Media., edited by Michael Gurevitch, Tony Bennett, James Curran, and Janet Woollacott. London: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berry, Chris. 2003. “What’s Big About The Big Film?: ‘De-Westernizing’ the Blockbuster in Korea and China.” In Movie Blockbusters, edited by Julian Stringer, 217–29. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bettig, Ronald. 1996. Copyrighting Culture: The Political Economy of Intellectual Property. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2008. “Hollywood and Intellectual Property.” In The Contemporary Hollywood Film Industry., edited by Paul McDonald and Janet Wasko, 195–206. Oxford; Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhabha, Homi. 1994. “Of Mimicry and Man: The Ambivalence of Colonial Discourse.” In The Location of Culture., edited by Homi Bhabha, 66–84. London; New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bimber, Bruce. 1994. “Three Faces of Technological Determinism.” In Does Technology Drive History? : The Dilemma of Technological Determinism., edited by Merritt Roe Smith and Leo Marx, 79–100. London; Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Biocca, Frank. 1988. “The Breakdown of the Canonical Audience.” In Communication Yearbook., edited by James Anderson, 127–32. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blumler, Jay, and Michael Gurevitch. 2001. “The New Media and Our Political Communication Discontents: Democratizing Cyberspace.” Information, Communication and Society. 4 (1):1–13.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bordwell, David, Janet Staiger, and Kristin Thompson. 1985. The Classical Hollywood Cinema: Film Style and Mode of Production to 1960. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bourdieu, Pierre. (1979) 1984. Distinctions. A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 1986. “The Aristocracy of Culture.” In Media, Culture and Society: A Critical Reader., edited by Richard Collins, James Curran, Nicholas Garnham, Paddy Scannell, Philip Schlesinger, and Colin Sparks. London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boyle, James. 2004. “A Manifesto on WIPO and the Future of Intellectual Property.” Duke Law and Technology Review. 9:1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bruns, Axel. 2008. Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life and Beyond: From Production to Produsage. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burks, Arthur. 1946. “Peirce’s Theory of Abduction.” Philosophy of Science. 13 (4):301–6.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Butsch, Richard. 2000. The Making of American Audiences: From Stage to Television, 1750–1990. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2008. The Citizen Audience: Crowds, Publics and Individuals. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Castells, Manuel, Alejandro Portes, and Lauren Benton. 1989. The Informal Economy: Studies in Advanced and Less Developed Countries. London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Caust, Jo. 2003. “Putting the ‘arts’ Back into Arts Policy Making: How Arts Policy Has Been ‘captured’ by the Economics and the Marketers.” International Journal of Cultural Policy. 8 (1):51–63.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chai, Joseph. 1997. China Transition to a Market Economy. Oxford; New York: Clarendon Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chan, Joseph Man. 1993. “Commercialization Without Independence: Media Development in China.” In China Review, edited by Maurice Brosseau and Joseph Cheng. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2003. “Administrative Boundaries and Media Marketization: A Comparative Analysis of the Newspaper, TV and Internet Markets in China.” In Chinese Media, Global Contexts., edited by Chin-chuan Lee, 159–96. London: Routledge Curzon.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chang, Ha-joon. 2008. Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism. London: Random House Business Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chin, Yik-chan. 2007. “From the Local to the Global: China’s TV Policy in Transition.” In Internationalization of the Chinese TV Sector., edited by Manfred Kops and Stefan Ollig, 221–40. Berlin: Lit Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cook, Pam. 1997. Gainsborough Pictures. London; Washington, DC: Cassell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coonan, Clifford. 2014. “Alibaba’s Film Crowdfunding Service Swarmed by Chinese Investors, Sells Out in Five Days.” The Hollywood Reporter, April. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/alibabas-film-crowdfunding-service-swarmed-693683.

  • Corbin, Juliet, and Anselm Strauss. 2008. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Creton, Laurent. 2005. L’économie Du Cinéma. Paris: Nathan; Armand Colin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cunningham, Stuart, and Jon Silver. 2012. “On-Line Film Distribution: Its History and Global Complexion.” In Digital Disruption: Cinema Moves On-Line., edited by Dina Iordanova and Stuart Cunningham. St. Andrews: Dina Iordanova.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2013. Screen Distribution and The New King Kongs of The Online World. Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Curran, James, and Myung-Jin Park. 2000. De-Westernizing Media Studies. London; New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Curtin, Michael. 2007. Playing to the World’s Biggest Audience: The Globalization of Chinese Film and TV. London, Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2010. “Comparing Media Capitals: Hong Kong and Mumbai.” Global Media Communication 6 (3):263–70.

    Google Scholar 

  • Curtis, Terry. 1988. “The Information Society: A Computer-Generated Case System?” In The Political Economy of Information., edited by Vincent Mosco and Janet Wasko, 95–107. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dale, Martin. 1997. The Movie Game: The Film Business in Britain, Europe and America. London: Cassell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Denscombe, Martyn. 2010. The Good Research Guide for Small-Scale Social Research Projects. Buckingham: Open University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dickson, Bruce. 2003. Red Capitalists in China: The Party, Private Entrepreneurs, and Prospects for Political Change. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2007. “Integrating Wealth and Power in China.” China Quarterly. 192:827–54.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2008. Wealth into Power: The Communist Party’s Embrace of China’s Private Sector. New York and London: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dijk, Teun Van. 1989. “Structures of Discourse and Structures of Power.” Communication Yearbook. 12:18–59.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dimitrov, Martin. 2009. Piracy and the State: The Politics of Intellectual Property Rights in China. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Doyle, Gillian, and Simon Frith. 2006. “Methodological Approaches in Media Management and Media Economics Research.” In Handbook of Media Management and Economics., edited by Alan Albarran, Sylvia Chan-Olmsted, and Michael Wirth. Mahwah, NJ: Taylor & Francis.

    Google Scholar 

  • Drahos, Peter, and John Braithwaite. 2002. Information Feudalism: Who Owns the Knowledge Economy? London: Earthscan Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dyer, Richard. 1986. Heavenly Bodies: Film Stars and Society. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 1993. The Matter of Images: Essays on Representations. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Economist (The). 2006. “No Direction: Everyone Is in Love with Chinese Cinema. Except the Chinese.” The Economist., April. Hong Kong. http://www.economist.com/node/6860259.

  • Ellis-Geiger, Robert. 2007. “Trends in Contemporary Hollywood Film Scoring: A Synthesised Approach for Hong Kong Cinema.” PhD Diss., The University of Leeds.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fiske, John. 1986. “British Cultural Studies and Television.” In Channels of Discourse., edited by Robert Allen, 254–89. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fowkes, Ben. 1976. Capital: A Critique of Political-Economy. Vol. I. Karl Marx: Capital. London: Penguin Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freedman, Matthew Brett. 2005. “Machinima and Copyright Law.” Journal of Intellectual Property Law. 13:235–54.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gandy, Oscar. 2014. “The Political Economy of Personal Information.” In The Handbook of Political Economy of Communications., edited by Janet Wasko, Graham Murdock, and Helena Sousa, 436–57. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garner, Ben. 2015. “The New Cultural Revolution: Chinese Cultural Policy Reform and the UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity.” The Political Economy of Communication, 57–82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garnham, Nicholas. 1983. “Public Service Versus the Market.” Screen 5 (1):6–28.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gartman, David. 1991. “Culture as Class Symbolization or Mass Reification? A Critique of Bourdieu’s Distinction.” American Journal of Sociology. 97 (2):421–47.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gauntlett, David. 1995. Moving Experiences: Understanding Television’s Influences and Effects. London: John Libbey.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 1997. Video Critical: Children, the Environment and Media Power. Luton: John Libbey.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gimmler, Antje. 2001. “Deliberative Democracy, the Public Sphere and the Internet.” Philosophy and Social Criticism. 27 (4):21–39.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Glaser, Barney, and Anselm Strauss. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gledhill, Chistine. 1988. “Pleasurable Negotiations.” In Female Spectators: Looking at Film and Television. London: Verso.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gomery, Douglas. 1992. Shared Pleasures: A History of Movie Presentation in the United States. London: British Film Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Graeber, David. 2001. Toward an Anthropological Theory of Value: The False Coin of Our Own Dreams. Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Grainge, Paul. 2008. Brand Hollywood: Selling Entertainment in a Global Media Age. Oxon; New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Griffin, Michael. 2002. “From Cultural Imperialism to Transnational Commercialisation: Shifting Paradigms in International Media Studies.” Global Media Journal. 1 (1). http://www.globalmediajournal.com/open-access/from-cultural-imperialism-to-transnational-commercialization-shifting-paradigms-in-international-media-studies.php?aid=35062.

  • Grinvald, Leah. 2008. “Making Much Ado about Theory: The Chinese Trademark Law.” Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review. 15 (53): 53–106.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gripsrud, Jostein. 2002. Understanding Media Culture. London: Arnold.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gubbins, Michael. 2012. “Digital Revolution: Active Audiences and Fragmented Consumption.” In Digital Disruption: Cinema Moves On-Line., edited by Dina Iordanova and Stuart Cunningham, 67–100. St. Andrews: Dina Iordanova.

    Google Scholar 

  • Guédon, Jean-Claude. 2003. “Locating the Information Society within Civil Society: The Case of Scientific and Scholarly Publications.” In Communicating in the Information Society., edited by Bruce Girard and Sean O’Siochru, 165–94. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD).

    Google Scholar 

  • Guo, Zhenzhi. 2003. “Playing the Game by the Rules? Television Regulation around China’s Entry into WTO.” Javnost – The Public: Journal of the European Institute for Communication and Culture. 10 (4):5–18.

    MathSciNet  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Habermas, Jurgen. (1962) 1989. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry in a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge: Polity Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hagen, Ingunn, and Janet Wasko. 2000. Consuming Audiences?: Production and Reception in Media Research. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hall, Stuart. (1973) 1980. “Encoding / Decoding.” In Culture, Media, Language. 128–38. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harper, Sue. 1994a. Picturing the Past: The Rise and Fall of the British Costume Film. London: British Film Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 1994b. “Review (On Douglas Gomery Shared Pleasures: A History of Movie Presentation in the United States).” Screen 35 (2):199–203.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hartley, John. 2009. “From the Consciousness Industry to Creative Industries: Consumer-Created Content, Social Network Markets and the Growth of Knowledge.” In Media Industries : History, Theory & Method, edited by Jennifer Holt and Alisa Perren, 231–44. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2010. “Forewords: Whose Creative Industries?” In China’s Creative Industries : Copyright, Social Network Markets and the Business of Culture in a Digital Age, edited by Lucy Montgomery, vi–xxvii. Cheltenham; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2012. Digital Futures for Cultural and Media Studies. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hartley, John, Wen Wen, and Henry Siling Li. 2015. Creative Economy and Culture. London; Thousand Oaks, CA; New Delhi; Singapore: SAGE Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hu, Zhengrong. 2003. “The Post-WTO Restructuring of the Chinese Media Industries and the Consequences of Capitalization.” Javnost – The Public: Journal of the European Institute for Communication and Culture. 10 (4):19–36.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • International Intellectual Property Alliance. 2011. “Special 301 Recommendation: IIPA Recommends That USTR Maintain China on the Priority Watch List in 2011.” Special 301 Report On Copyright Protection And Enforcement. http://www.iipa.com/countryreports.html.

  • Iordanova, Dina. 2012. Digital Disruption: Technological Innovation and Global Film Circulation. Digital Disruption: Cinema Moves On-Line. St Andrews, Scotland: Dina Iordanova, University of St. Andrews, Centre for Film Studies.

    Google Scholar 

  • Iordanova, Dina, and Stuart Cunningham. 2012. Digital Disruption : Cinema Moves on-Line. St Andrews, Scotland: Dina Iordanova, University of St. Andrews, Centre for Film Studies.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jaffe, Joseph. 2005. Life after the 30-Second Spot: Energize Your Brand with a Bold Mix of Alternatives to Traditional Advertising. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jameson, Fredric. 1998. “Notes on Globalization as a Philosophical Issue.” In The Cultures of Globalization., edited by Fredric Jameson and Masao Miyoshi, 54–77. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jenkins, Henry. 1992. Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2006a. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: New York University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2006b. Fans, Bloggers and Gamers: Exploring Participatory Culture. New York: New York University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jenkins, Henry, Sam Ford, and Joshua Green. 2013. Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture. London; New York: New York University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • John, Nicholas. 2012. “Sharing and Web 2.0: The Emergence of a Keyword.” New Media and Society. 15 (2):167–82.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Johns, Adrian. 2010. Piracy: The Intellectual Property Wars from Gutenberg to Gates. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, Derek. 2007. “Inviting Audiences In: The Spatial Reorganisation of Production and Consumption in ‘TVIII’.” New Review of Film and Television Studies. 5 (1):61–80.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Katz, Elihu, Jay Blumler, and Michael Gurevitch. 1973. “Uses and Gratifications Research.” The Public Opinion Quarterly. 4:509–23.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 1974. “Utilization of Mass Communication by the Individual”. In The Uses of Mass Communication: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research., edited by Jay Blumler and Elihu Katz. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keane, Michael. 2007. “Created in China: The Great New Leap Forward.” In Media, Culture and Social Change in Asia. Abingdon: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2013a. Creative Industries in China : Art, Design and Media. China Today. Cambridge: Polity.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2013b. “China’s New Creative Clusters: Governance, Human Capital, and Investment.” In Media, Culture and Social Change in Asia. London; New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2015. The Chinese Television Industry. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keane, Michael, and Stephanie Hemelryk Donald. 2002. “Responses to Crisis: Convergence, Content Industries and Media Governance.” In Media in China: Consumption, Content and Crisis., edited by Michael Keane, Stephanie Hemelryk Donald, and Yin Hong, 3–17. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Klinger, Barbara. 2006. Beyond the Multiplex: Cinema, New Technologies and The Home. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Laliberté, André, and Marc Lanteigne. 2008. “The Issue of Challenges to the Legitimacy of CCP Rule.” In The Chinese Party-State in the 21st Century., edited by André Laliberté and Marc Lanteigne, 1–21. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lansdowne, Helen, and Guoguang Wu. 2009. Socialist China, Capitalist China: Social Tension and Political Adaptation under Economic Globalization. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, Chin-chuan. 1990. Voices of China: The Interplay of Politics and Journalism. London: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2003. “The Global and the National of the Chinese Media: Discourses, Market, Technology and Ideology.” In Chinese Media, Global Contexts., edited by Chin-chuan Lee, 1–31. London: Routledge Curzon.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, Philip. 2005. Hong Kong’s Film Industry: A path to enter the global market in the new century. PhD Thesis, Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

    Google Scholar 

  • León, Paco. 2012. “Carmina O Revienta [Carmina or Blow Up].”

    Google Scholar 

  • Lessig, Lawrence. 2004. Free Culture: The Nature and Future of Creativity. New York: Penguin Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lessig, Lawrence. 2008. Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy. New York: Penguin Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Levin, Jordan. 2011. “Multi-Screen Business Model.” Media Industries Project. UC Santa Barbara. www.carseywolf.ucsb.edu/mip/jordan-levin-multi-screen-business-model.

  • Li, Wuwei. 2011. How Creativity Is Changing China. Edited by Michael Keane. London: Bloomsbury.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lin, Lilian. 2013. “Why the Majority of Chinese Films Never Make It to Theaters.” Wall Street Journal, March 22. https://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2013/03/22/the-many-chinese-films-you-wont-see-in-a-theater/.

  • Livingstone, Sonia. 1998. “Audience Research at the Crossroads: The ‘Implied Audience’ in Media and Cultural Theory.” European Journal of Cultural Studies. 1 (2).

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2003. “The Changing Nature of Audiences: From the Mass Audience to the Interactive Media User.” In A Companion to Media Studies., edited by Angharad Valdivia, 337–59. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2005. “Critical Debates in Internet Studies: Reflections on an Emerging Field.” In Mass Media and Society., edited by James Curran and Michael Gurevitch, 4th ed. London; New York: Hodder Arnold; Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lobato, Ramon. 2012. Shadow Economies of Cinema: Mapping Informal Film Distribution. London: Palgrave Macmillan for The British Film Institute (BFI).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lobato, Ramon, and Julian Thomas. 2012. “‘The Business of Anti-Piracy: New Zones of Enterprise in the Copyright Wars.” International Journal of Communications. 6:606–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2015. The Informal Media Economy. Cambridge; Malden, MA: Wiley, Polity Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lobato, Ramon, Julian Thomas, and Dan Hunter. 2011. “Histories of User-Generated Content: Between Formal and Informal Media Economies.” International Journal of Communication. 5:899–914.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lu, Keng. 1994. “Press Control in “New China” and “Old China”.”, In China’s Media, Media’s China., edited by Chin-Chuan Lee. Boulder, CO: Westview.

    Google Scholar 

  • MacKenzie, Donald, and Judy Wajcman. 1985. The Social Shaping of Technology: How the Refrigerator Got Its Hum. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maltby, Richard. 1999. ““Sticks, Hicks, and Flaps”: Classical Hollywood’s Generic Conception of Its Audiences.” In Identifying Hollywood’s Audiences: Cultural Identity and The Movies., edited by Melvyn Stokes and Richard Maltby. London: British Film Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marchetti, Gina, and See-kam Tam. 2007. Hong Kong Film, Hollywood and New Global Cinema: No Film Is an Island. London; New York: Routledge.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marshall, Thomas Humphrey. 1950. Citizenship and Social Class: And Other Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martínez Gallardo, Francisco, and Jordi Alberich Pascual. 2013. “Plataformas Y Proyectos de Crowdsourcing Y Crowdfunding Cinematográfico En España.” Historia Y Comunicación Social. 18 (10):85–95.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maskus, Keith. 2000. Intellectual Property Rights in the Global Economy. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mattelart, Armand. 2010. The Globalization of Surveillance. Cambridge; Malden, MA: Polity Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mattelart, Armand, and Michele Mattelart. (1998) 2004. Theories of Communication: A Short Introduction. London; Thousand Oaks, CA; New Delhi: SAGE Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mauss, Marcel. 1965. The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies. New York: Norton.

    Google Scholar 

  • McDonald, Paul. 2007. Video and DVD Industries. London: BFI.

    Google Scholar 

  • McDonald, Paul, and Janet Wasko. 2008. The Contemporary Hollywood Film Industry. Blackwell Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • McLuhan, Marshall. 1964. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. London; New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • McNeal, James, and Chyon-Hwa Yeh. 1997. “Development of Consumer Behavior Patterns among Chinese Children.” The Journal of Consumer Marketing. 14 (1):45–59.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McQuail, Denis. 1994. “The Rise of Media of Mass Communication.” In Mass Communication Theory: An Introduction., edited by Denis McQuail. London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2010. McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory. London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • McQuail, Denis, Jay Blumler, and Joseph Brown. 1972. “The Television Audience: A Revised Perspective.” Sociology of Mass Communications., edited by Denis McQuail. Middlesex: Penguin.

    Google Scholar 

  • McQuarrie, Christopher. MI:5 A.k.a Mission: Impossible – Rogue Nation. China | Hong Kong | USA: Paramount Pictures, Alibaba Pictures Group, China Film Group, 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meehan, Eileen. 1984. “Ratings and the Institutional Approach: A Third Answer to the Commodity Question.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 1:2:216–25.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Meng, Bingchun. 2012. “Underdetermined Globalization: Media Consumption via P2P Networks.” International Journal of Communication. 6:478–83.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mertha, Andrew. 2005. The Politics of Piracy: Intellectual Property in Contemporary China. New York: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miège, Bernard. 1989. The Capitalization of Cultural Production. New York: International General.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller, Toby, Nitin Govil, and John McMurria. 2001. Global Hollywood. London: British Film Institute Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Montgomery, Lucy. 2010. China’s Creative Industries : Copyright, Social Network Markets and the Business of Culture in a Digital Age. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Moores, Shaun. 1993. Interpreting Audiences: The Ethnography of Media Consumption. London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morley, David. 1992. Television, Audiences, and Cultural Studies. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mosco, Vincent. 1988. “Introduction: Information in the Pay-per Society.” In The Political Economy of Information., edited by Vincent Mosco and Janet Wasko, 3–26. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mosco, Vincent, and Derek Foster. 2001. “Cyberspace and the End of Politics.” Journal of Communication Inquiry. 25 (3):218–36.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mosco, Vincent, and Christian Fuchs. 2016. Marx and the Political Economy of the Media. Leiden; Boston, MA: Brill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mosco, Vincent, and Lewis Kaye. 2000. “Questioning the Concept of the Audience.” In Consuming Audiences?: Production and Reception in Media Research, 31–46. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Murdock, Graham. 1989a. “Critical Inquiry and Audience Activity.” In Rethinking Communication: Volume 2: Paradigm Exemplars, edited by Brenda Dervin, Lawrence Grossberg, Barbara J. O’Keefe, and Ellen Wartella, 226–49. London; Newbury Park; New Delhi: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 1989b. “Cultural Studies at the Crossroads.” Australian Journal of Communication. 16:37–49.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2004. “Building The Digital Commons: Public Broadcasting in the Age of the Internet.” In The 2004 Spry Memorial Lecture, 1–20. Montreal: University of Montreal.

    Google Scholar 

  • Murdock, Graham, and Peter Golding. 1977. “Capitalism, Communication and Class Relations.” In Mass Communication and Society., edited by James Curran, Michael Gurevitch, and Janet Woollacott. London: Edward Arnold.

    Google Scholar 

  • Murdock, Graham, and Peter Golding. 1989. “Information Poverty and Political Inequality: Citizenship in the Age of Privatized Communications.” Journal of Communication. 39 (3):180–95.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 1991. “Culture, Communications and Political Economy.” In Mass Media and Society., edited by James Curran and Michael Gurevitch, 15–32. London: Edward Arnold.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 1997. The Political Economy of The Media. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  • Musso, Pierre. 1997. Télécommunications et Philosophie Des Réseaux: La Postérité Paradoxale de Saint-Simon. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France (PUF).

    Google Scholar 

  • Myerscough, John. 1988. The Economic Importance of the Arts in Britain. London: Policy Studies Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Napoli. 2003. Audience Economics: Media Institutions and The Audience Marketplace. Chichester; New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Napoli, Philip. 2011. Audience Evolution : New Technologies and the Transformation of Media Audiences. Chichester; New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Neale, Steve. 1980. Genre. London: British Film Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 1985. Cinema and Technology: Image, Sound, Colour. London; Basingstoke: Macmillan Education.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 1990. “Questions of Genre.” Screen. 31 (1):45–66.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2000. Genre and Hollywood. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nye, Joseph Jr. 1990. “Soft Power.” Foreign Policy. 20th Anniv (Autumn):153–71.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2004. Soft Power. New York: Public Affairs.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pang, Laikwan. 2012. Creativity and Its Discontents: China’s Creative Industries and Intellectual Property Rights Offenses. Durham, NC; London: Duke University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pendakur, Manjunath. 2008. “Hollywood and the State: The American Film Industry Cartel in the Age of Globalization.” In The Contemporary Hollywood Film Industry., edited by Janet Wasko and Paul McDonald. Oxford; Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peterson, Richard. 1982. “Five Constraints on the Production of Culture: Law, Technology, Market, Organizational Structure and Occupational Careers.” Journal of Popular Culture. 16 (2):143–53.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Peterson, Richard, and Narasimhan Anand. 2004. “The Production of Culture Perspective.” Annual Review of Sociology. 30 (3):11–34.

    Google Scholar 

  • Petrie, Duncan. 1998. “History and Cinema Technology.” In The Oxford Guide To Film Studies., edited by John Hill, John Church Gibson, and Pamela Church Gibson, 238–44. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pramaggiore, Maria, and Tom Wallis. 2005. Film: A Critical Introduction. London: Lawrence King Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Preston, William, Herman Edward, and Herbert Schiller. 1989. Hope and Folly: The United States and UNESCO, 1945–1985. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Qiu, Jack Lichuan. 2004. “The Internet in China: Technologies of Freedom in a Statist Society.” In The Network Society: A Cross-Cultural Perspective., edited by Manuel Castells, 99–124. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2013. “Power to the People! – Mobiles, Migrants, and Social Movements in Asia.” International Journal of Communication. 8:376–91.

    Google Scholar 

  • Qu, Sanqiang. 2002. Chinese Copyright Laws. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Radway, Janice. 1988. “Reception Study: Ethnography and the Problems of Dispersed Audiences and Nomadic Subjects.” Cultural Studies. 2:3:359–67.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ralph, Sue, Jo Langham Brown, and Tim Lees. 1999. Youth and The Global Media. Luton: University of Luton Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roe Smith, Merritt, and Leo Marx. 1994. Does Technology Drive History?: The Dilemma of Technological Determinism. London; Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosen, Philip. 1986. Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology: A Film Theory Reader. New York; Chichester: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosen, Stanley. 2009. “Contemporary Chinese Youth and the State.” The Journal of Asian Studies. 68:359–69.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2017. “Lessons From China’s Unexpected Year In Film.” HuffPost. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/wolf-warrior-2-chinese-hollywood_us_59a058d5e4b0821444c2f056.

  • Ruggiero, Thomas. 2000. “Uses and Gratifications Theory in the 21st Century.” Mass Communication and Society. 3:1:3–37.

    MathSciNet  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Saussure, Ferdinand De. 1966. Course in General Linguistics (Translation: Wade Baskin). New York: McGraw Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schiller, Dan. 2000. Digital Capitalism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schumpeter, Joseph. (1942) 2012. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. New York: Harper & Brothers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sennett, Richard. 2008. The Craftsman. New Haven: Yale University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shambaugh, David. 2008. China’s Communist Party: Atrophy and Adaptation. Washington DC; Berkeley; Los Angeles; London: Woodrow Wilson Center Press; University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shin, Stephen Kei-yin [冼杞然 ] and Michael Parker. The Last Race. US: Alibaba Pictures, 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sola Poole, Ithiel De. 1983. Technologies of Freedom. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sparks, Colin. 2007. Globalization, Development and the Mass Media. London; Thousand Oaks, CA; New Delhi; Singapore: SAGE Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Springer, Sharon. 1999. “The New Media Paradigm: Users as Creators of Content.” Personal Technologies. 3:153–59.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Su, Shaozhi. 1994. “Chinese Communist Ideology and Media Control.” Chinese Media, Global Contexts., edited by Chin-Chuan Lee. London: Routledge Curzon.

    Google Scholar 

  • Terranova, Tiziana. 2000. “Free Labour: Producing Culture for the Digital Economy.” Social Text. 63 18 (2):33–57.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2004. Network Culture: Politics for the Information Age. London: Pluto.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vollmer, Christopher, Carolyn Ude, and Edward Landry. 2010. HD Marketing 2010: Sharpening the Conversation. Booz Allen Hamilton. http://www.boozallen.com/media/file/HD_Marketing_2010.pdf.

  • Vuorensola, Timo. 2012. “The Iron Sky.” Produced by Blind Spot Pictures.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang, Shujen. 2003a. Framing Piracy: Globalization and Film Distribution in Greater China. Lanham, MN: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2003b. “Recontextualizing Copyright: Piracy, Hollywood, the State, and Globalization.” Cinema Journal. 43 (1):25–43.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2010. “Piracy and the DVED/VCD Market: Contradictions and Paradoxes.”

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang, Jing. 2004. “The Global Reach of a New Discourse: How Far Can ‘creative Industries’ Travel?” International Journal of Cultural Studies. 7 (1):9–19.

    MathSciNet  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wasko, Janet. 1994. Hollywood In the Information Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2003. How Hollywood Works. London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Waters, Donald. 2008. Quantitative Methods for Business. 4th ed. Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • White, Andrew. 2012. “Key to Unlock China’s Creativity.” China Daily, March 13. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2012-03/13/content_14818744.htm.

  • White, Andrew, and Sujing Xu. 2012. “A Critique of China’s Cultural Policy and the Development of Its Cultural and Creative Industries: The Case of Shanghai.” Cultural Trends. 21 (3):249–57.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wible, James. 2008. “The Economic Mind of Charles Sanders Peirce.” Contemporary Pragmatism. 5 (2):39–67.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Williams, Frederick, Ronald E. Rice, and Everett M. Rogers. 1988. Research Methods and the New Media. Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams, Robin, and David Edge. 1996. “The Social Shaping of Technology.” Research Policy. 25:865–99.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wu, Guoguang. 2000. “One Head, Many Mouths: Diversifying Press Structures in Reform China.” In Power, Money, and Media: Communication Patterns and Bureaucratic Control in Cultural China., edited by Chin-Chuan Lee. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Xin, Xin. 2006. “Media in China.” Communication and Culture. 3 (1):1–10.

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2010. “Chindia’s Challenge to Global Communication: A Perspective from China.” Global Media Communication. 6 (3):263–70.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2012. How the Market Is Changing China’s News: The Case of Xinhua News Agency. Lanham, MN: Lexington Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yang, Keming. 2013. Capitalists in Communist China. International Political Economy Series. London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao, Yuezhi. 1998. Media, Market and Democracy in China: Between the Party Line and the Bottom Line. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2003. “Neo-Liberal Globalization, the Dream for a Strong Nation, and Chinese Press Discourses on the WTO.” In Chinese Media, Global Contexts, edited by Chin-chuan Lee, 32–56. London: Routledge Curzon.

    Google Scholar 

  • ———. 2008. Communication in China: Political Economy, Power and Conflict. Lanham, MN: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Google Scholar 

  • Žižek, Slavoj. 2010. Living in the End Times. London: Verso.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Poujol, P. (2019). Literature Review. In: Online Film Production in China Using Blockchain and Smart Contracts. International Series on Computer Entertainment and Media Technology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02468-0_2

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02468-0_2

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-02467-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-02468-0

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)