Skip to main content

Modular Composition of Human Gaits Through Locomotor Subfunctions and Sensor-Motor-Maps

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Wearable Robotics: Challenges and Trends (WeRob 2018)

Part of the book series: Biosystems & Biorobotics ((BIOSYSROB,volume 22))

Included in the following conference series:

  • 3634 Accesses


Human locomotion is a complex movement task, which can be divided into a set of locomotor subfunctions. These subfunction comprise stance leg function, swing leg function and balance. Each of these locomotor subfunctions requires a specific control of individual muscles in the human body. We propose a novel method based on sensor-motor-maps to identify the appropriate motor control settings based on sensory feedback loops. Based on template models, both the biomechanical as well as the neuromuscular dynamics of gait can be studies and described at different levels of detail.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Deutschen Meisterschaften Ulm, 26 June 2014

    Google Scholar 

  2. Willwacher, S., Funken, J., Heinrich, K., Müller, R., Hobara, H., Grabowski, A.M., Brüggemann, G.P., Potthast, W.: Elite long jumpers with below the knee prostheses approach the board slower, but take-off more effectively than non-amputee athletes. Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16058 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Geyer, H., Seyfarth, A., Blickhan, R.: Compliant leg behaviour explains basic dynamics of 28 walking and running. Proc. R. Soc. B 273(1603), 2861–2867 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Sharbafi, M.A., et al.: Reconstruction of human swing leg motion with passive biarticular muscle models. Hum. Mov. Sci. 52, 96–107 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Maus et al.: Nature Communications (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Sharbafi, M.A., Seyfarth, A.: Fmch: a new model for human-like postural control in walking. In: IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 5742–5747 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Sharbafi, M.A., Seyfarth, A.: How locomotion sub-functions can control walking at different speeds? J. Biomech. (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Schumacher, C., Seyfarth, A.: Sensor-motor maps for describing linear reflex composition in hopping. Front. Comput. Neurosci. 11, 108 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Geyer, H., Seyfarth, A., Blickhan, R.: Positive force feedback in bouncing gaits? Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 270(1529), 2173–2183 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This research was supported by the EU FP7 project BALANCE and by the DFG grants awarded to A.S. and M.A.S. (SE1042/6, SE1042/8, SE1042/31 and AH 307/2-1).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Andre Seyfarth .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Seyfarth, A., Sharbafi, M.A., Zhao, G., Schumacher, C. (2019). Modular Composition of Human Gaits Through Locomotor Subfunctions and Sensor-Motor-Maps. In: Carrozza, M., Micera, S., Pons, J. (eds) Wearable Robotics: Challenges and Trends. WeRob 2018. Biosystems & Biorobotics, vol 22. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-01886-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-01887-0

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics