In Vitro Cancer Diagnostics

  • Jung-Rok Lee
  • Chin Chun Ooi
  • Shan X. WangEmail author
Part of the Bioanalysis book series (BIOANALYSIS, volume 5)


Cancer is a highly complex system and the second most common cause of death in the United States. Substantial efforts and investment have been made to understand the mechanism, develop diagnostic tools with better biomarkers, and improve therapeutics. To overcome the challenges associated with improving cancer outcomes, understanding the essential concepts behind diagnostic tests and their common modalities, as well as promising nanotechnology-based techniques used in the field, is greatly necessary. Thus, the basic concepts of a diagnostic test such as medical sensitivity and specificity are discussed in this chapter. The associated concepts of positive or negative predictive value and receiver operating characteristic curve are also explained with regard to their utility in evaluating diagnostic tests. In addition, the principles of genomic, proteomic, and cellular techniques used in cancer research are briefly reviewed, and nanotechnology-based diagnostic modalities in each corresponding category are introduced to highlight the impact of nanotechnology in the field of cancer diagnostics. Nanotechnology has demonstrated tremendous utility to cancer biomarker detection over the past decades and will indubitably be the key to future developments in cancer diagnosis.


Cancer In vitro Diagnostics Nanotechnology Biomarker Sensitivity Specificity Threshold Positive predictive value Negative predictive value Receiver operating characteristic Area under curve Youden’s index Multivariate index Molecular modality DNA sequencing Cancer genomics Next-generation sequencing Cancer proteomics Immunoassay Biosensors Nanoparticles Cellular modality Single-cell analysis Circulating tumor cell 


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Mechanical and Biomedical EngineeringEwha Womans UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  3. 3.Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Electrical EngineeringStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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