Advertisement

Smart Pedagogy for Smart Learning

  • Neus Lorenzo
  • Ray GallonEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Pedagogy has been defined as the discipline that deals with theoretical concepts and practical educational approaches. A smart pedagogy for digital transformation, where artificial intelligence will provide smart educational agents, needs to consider how technologies affect perceptions of reality, cognition, and social interactions. In the second decade of the twenty-first century, several international organizations, including the OECD and UNESCO, are converging on natural learning principles for a new pedagogy focused on achieving the United Nations goals for sustainable development. At the same time, notions about learning space have evolved due to the input of specialists from many disciplines. Even the term “space” has been redefined, with the advent of personal computers and mobile devices as elements that offer a window to the world. Educators today are facing a major paradigm shift, in the form of the fourth industrial revolution, or Industry 4.0, that requires a rapid response through Information 4.0. New technologies and infrastructures enable learning to be personalized to each individual learner. Technological objects metamorphose from tools or environments into personified agents that help teachers evaluate the potential and progress of each learner and might eventually decide for them. Future challenges demand a humanistic approach to technological development in education.

Keywords

Smart learning space Virtual learning space Educational space Smart pedagogy Smart learning Information 4.0 Digital transformation Distance learning Artificial intelligence Internet of Things Personalized learning eLearning Mobile learning 

References

  1. Achieve Agency. (2017). The power of voice: A new era of cause activation & social issue adoption. In The 2017 millenial impact report, phase 2. http://www.themillennialimpact.com/sites/default/files/reports/Phase2Report_MIR2017_091917_0.pdf. Accessed 8 Apr 2018.
  2. Ahmad, K., Corbett, R., Rogers, M., & Sussex, R. (1985). Computer language learning and language teaching. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Ainscow, M. (1999). Understanding the development of inclusive schools. Oxford, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. (2017). France is banning mobile phones in schools. World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/12/france-is-banning-mobile-phones-in-schools. Accessed 18 Apr 2018.
  5. Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., et al. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  6. Beetham, H., & Sharpe, R. (Eds.). (2013). Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age: Designing for 21st century learning. New York: Routledge. Cited in Scott (2015).Google Scholar
  7. Biklen, D., Ferguson, D., & Ford, A. (Eds.). (1989). Schooling and Disability. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, National Society for the Study of Education Yearbooks.Google Scholar
  8. Binet, A., & Simon, T. (1911). A method of measuring the development of the intelligence of young children. Lincoln, IL: Courier Company.Google Scholar
  9. Bloom, B. S. (Ed.), Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, handbook I: The cognitive domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, S. (2010). From VLEs to learning webs: The implications of Web 2.0 for learning and teaching. Interactive Learning Environments, 18(1), 1–10. http://ecet.ecs.uni-ruse.bg/cst/Docs/proceedings/Plenary/P-2.pdf. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brumfit, C. J., Phillips, M., & Skehan, P. (Eds.). (1985). Computers in English language teaching: A view from the classroom (ELT Documents 122). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  12. Buchem, I., Cochrane, T., Bateman, R., Camacho, M., Gordon, A., & Keegan, H. (2012). Mlearning 2.0: The potential and challenges of collaborative mobile learning in participatory curriculum development in higher education. Paper presented at the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2012. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235633449_Mlearning_20_The_potential_and_challenges_of_collaborative_mobile_learning_in_participatory_curriculum_development_in_higher_education. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.
  13. Camacho, M., & Ferrer, G. T. (2012). Exploring learners’ practices and perceptions on the use of mobile portfolios as methodological tool to assess learning in both formal and informal contexts. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 3182–3186. Elsevier Science Direct. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042812017697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cook, D. J. (2010). Learning setting-generalized activity models for smart spaces. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 2010(99).  https://doi.org/10.1109/MIS.2010.112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Daniela, L. (2018). Generation 5 is coming: Are we ready? Conference presentation, Information Energy, 2018, attended by author R. Gallon, Amsterdam, 1 March 2018.Google Scholar
  16. De Corte, E. (2010). Historical developments in the understanding of learning. In H. Dumont, D. Istance, & F. Benavides (Eds.), The nature of learning: Using research to inspire practice (pp. 35–68). OECD Publishing. http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/the-nature-of-learning_9789264086487-en#page1. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. De Leon, J. (2017, January 7). Defining your bot’s purpose and focusing its domain knowledge – A Minimal Viable Knowledge (MVK) approach to training your bot. Chatbots Magazine. https://chatbotsmagazine.com/defining-your-bots-purpose-and-focusing-its-domain-knowledge-2e8c3e684987. Accessed 18 Apr 2018.
  18. Decroly, O. (1929). La fonction de globalisation et l’enseignement. Brussels: Lamertin.Google Scholar
  19. Delors, J., Al Mufti, I., Amagi, I., Carneiro, R., Chung, F., Geremek, B., Gorham, W., Kornhauser, A., Manley, M., Padrón Quero, M., Savané, M., Singh, K., Stavenhagen, R., Suhr, M.W., & Nanzhao, Z. (1996). Learning: The treasure within. Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  20. Dodge, B. (2001). FOCUS: Five rules for writing a great WebQuest. Learning and Leading with Technology, 28(8), 6–9, 58 ff. http://webquest.org/sdsu/focus/focus.pdf. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.Google Scholar
  21. Ellerani, P., & Gentileb, M. (2013). The role of teachers as facilitators to develop empowering leadership and school communities supported by the method of cooperative learning. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, 12–17. Elsevier ScienceDirect. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042813032473. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ellis, A. K., Cogan, J. J., & Howey, K. R. (1991). Introduction to the foundations of education. New York: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  23. European Commission. (2012). European Business Forum on vocational training, challenges and trends in continuing development of skills and career development of the European workforce – Survey report. European Commission, Education and Training. http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/repository/education/policy/vocational-policy/doc/forum-survey_en.pdf. Accessed 18 Apr 2018.
  24. European Commission. (2014). Annotated guidelines. Erasmus Charter for Higher Education, 2014–2020. http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/funding/2014/documents/annotated_guidelines_en.pdf. Accessed 15 Feb 2014.
  25. European Commission. (2017). European pillar of social rights. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/sites/beta-political/files/social-summit-european-pillar-social-rights-booklet_en.pdf. Accessed 18 Apr 2018.
  26. Ferrer i Guàrdia, F. (1913). The origin and ideals of the modern school (J. McCabe, Trans.). London: Watts & Co.Google Scholar
  27. Fisher, M. (2009). Visual representation of Bloom’s taxonomic hierarchy with 21st century skills. http://visualblooms.wikispaces.com/. Image: http://bbbb.global2.vic.edu.au/files/2009/10/Digital_Blooms.JPG. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.
  28. Fleming, N. D., & Mills, C. (1992). Helping students understand how they learn. The Teaching Professor, 7(4). Madison, WI: Magma Publications.Google Scholar
  29. Florio, D. H. (1975). Teachers and innovation: An urban emphasis. In G. Zaltman & B. Sternthal (Eds.), SV – Broadening the concept of consumer behavior. Cincinnati, OH: Association for Consumer Research. http://acrwebsite.org/volumes/12059/volumes/sv03/SV-03. Accessed 18 Apr 2018.Google Scholar
  30. Freinet, C. (1927). L’imprimerie à l’école. Boulogne, France: E. Ferrary Éditeur.Google Scholar
  31. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed (Myra Bergman Ramos, Trans.). New York: Herder and Herder.Google Scholar
  32. Gallon, R., & Lorenzo, N. (2015). Tech challenges: Surfing and diving deep. White Paper, The Transformation Society for Adobe Technical Communication. http://www.adobe.com/content/dam/Adobe/en/products/technicalcommunicationsuite/techcomsuite-5/pdf/tech_challenges-surfing_and_diving_deep.pdf. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.
  33. Gallon, R., & McDonald, A. (2016, November). Context sensing and Information 4.0. TC World Magazine, Stuttgart, TC World gmbh. http://www.tcworld.info/e-magazine/content-strategies/article/content-sensing-and-information-40/. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.
  34. Gardner, H., & Hatch, T. (1989). Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences. Educational Researcher, 18(8), 4–9.Google Scholar
  35. Gates, R. (1993). Internet cruising with the Internet Hunt. The Electronic Library, 11(1), 19–24.  https://doi.org/10.1108/eb045204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Heo, H., & Joung, S. (2004, October 19–23). Self-regulation strategies and technologies for adaptive learning management systems for web-based instruction. Chicago, IL: Association for Educational Communications and Technology. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED485141.pdf. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.
  37. Hermann, M., Pentek, T., & Otto, B. (2016). Design principles for Industrie 4.0 Scenarios, accessed on 4 May 2016. Proceedings of the 2016 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 3928–3937. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2016.488
  38. Honey, P., & Mumford, A. (1992). Manual of learning styles (2nd ed.). London: Peter Honey Publications.Google Scholar
  39. Illeris, K. (Ed.). (2009). Contemporary theories of learning: Learning theorists … in their own words (1st ed.). New York: Routledge. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1085/b8aaeee9d65dccbe930dca5fe6034bbaeb4d.pdf. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.Google Scholar
  40. Information 4.0 Consortium. (2018). Information 4.0. http://information4zero.org. Accessed 18 Mar 2018.
  41. International Tuning Project. (2014). Proyecto Alfa Tuning América Latina: Innovación Educativa y Social en Español (2011–2014). http://www.unideusto.org/tuningeu/competences.html. Accessed 17 Nov 2017.
  42. JISC Development Group. (2006). Designing spaces for effective learning: A guide to 21st century learning space design. Bristol, UK: JISC Development Group. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20140703004833/http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/learningspaces.pdf. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.Google Scholar
  43. Jones, C., & Fortescue, S. (1987). Using computers in the language classroom. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  44. Josefowicz, M., Gallon, R., & Lorenzo, N. (2017). Transmedia and transliteracy in nemetical analysis. In M. Khosrow-Pour (Ed.), Encyclopedia of information science and technology (4th ed.). Hershey, PA: IGI Global ISBN: 9781522522553.Google Scholar
  45. Khatib, F., DiMaio, F., Foldit Contenders Group, Foldit Void Crushers Group, Cooper, S., Kazmierczyk, M., et al. (2011). Crystal structure of a monomeric retroviral protease solved by protein folding game players. Nature Structural and Molecular Biology, 18. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1038/nsmb.2119. https://www.nature.com/articles/nsmb.2119#auth-1. Accessed 11 Apr 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kirkpatrick, D. (1996). Great ideas revisited: Revisiting Kirkpatrick’s four-level model. Training and Development, 50(1), 54–59.Google Scholar
  47. Lambert, R. S. (1963). School broadcasting in Canada. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lee, K. (2000, December). English teachers’ barriers to the use of computer-assisted language learning. The Internet TESL Journal, VI(12). Hsinchu, Taiwan: Hsuan Chuang University. http://iteslj.org/Articles/Lee-CALLbarriers. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.
  49. Lorenzo, N., & Gallon, R. (2015). Higher education and globalization. In F. M. Ribeiro, Y. Politis, & B. Culum (Eds.), New Voices in Higher Education Research and Scholarship (pp. 127–156). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. ISBN 978-1-4666-7244-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lorenzo, N., & Noguera, E. (1996). Missatges llunyans, una realitat compartida: unes experiencies de comunicació internacional a la Xarxa Telematica Educativa de Catalunya. Temps d’Educació, 16, 23–36. ISSN: 0214-7351.Google Scholar
  51. Lorenzo, N., & Noguera, E. (1997). Internet: propostes educatives per a l’aplicació d’eines telemàtiques a l’aula de llengua anglesa. Butlletí de l’Associació de Professors d’Anglès de Catalunya, Mars 97, 27–29.Google Scholar
  52. Marope, M., Griffin, P., & Gallagher, C. (2018). Future competences and the future of curriculum – A global reference for curricula transformation. International Bureau of Education – UNESCO. https://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=international+bureau+of+education&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8. Accessed 17 Mar 2018.
  53. Mason, R. (1998, October). Models of on-line courses. ALN Magazine, 2(2). ISSN 1092-7131. http://universidadabierta.org/descargas/mason.pdf. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.
  54. McCulloch, W. S. (1965). Embodiments of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  55. McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M. J. W. (2008). The three p’s of pedagogy for the networked society: Personalization, participation, and productivity. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20(1), 10–27. Cited in Scott (2015).Google Scholar
  56. McMullin, B., & Varela, F. J. (1997). Rediscovering computational autopoiesis. In P. Husbands & J. Harvey (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Artificial Life. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  57. Ochola, J. E., & Achrazoglou, G. J. (2015, March). Maximizing opportunities: Smart learning spaces, smarter interactions, and collaboration. Journal of Education and Human Development, 4(1), 121–132.  https://doi.org/10.15640/jehd.v4n1a12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. OECD. (2013). PISA 2015: Draft collaborative problem-solving framework, March 2013. http://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/Draft%20PISA%202015%20Collaborative%20Problem%20Solving%20Framework%20.pdf. Accessed 15 Feb 2014.
  59. OECD (2018). Preparing Our Youth for an Inclusive and Sustainable World – The OECD PISA global competence framework. http://www.oecd.org/pisa/aboutpisa/Global-competency-for-an-inclusive-world.pdf. Accessed 26 June 2018.
  60. Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals. (2014). Sustainable development begins with education – How education can contribute to the proposed post-2015 goals. Paris: UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002305/230508e.pdf. Accessed 26 June 2018.Google Scholar
  61. Pask, G. (1976). Conversational techniques in the study and practice of education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, N° 46. http://www.pangaro.com/pask/pask%20conversational%20techniques%20in%20edu%20-r.pdf. Accessed 4 Mar 2018.
  62. Perez, C. E. (2018). Will intuition machines and conversational cognition change how we use deep learning in the information world? Conference presentation, Information Energy, 2018, attended by author R. Gallon, Amsterdam, 2 March 2018.Google Scholar
  63. Phillips, M. (1987). Communication language learning and the microcomputer. London: British Council.Google Scholar
  64. Puentedura, R. (2014). SAMR and Bloom’s taxonomy: Assembling the puzzle. Common Sense Education. Blog post. https://www.commonsense.org/education/blog/samr-and-blooms-taxonomy-assembling-the-puzzle. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.
  65. Rellis, P., McGarry, M., Kirk, M., Dolan, J., McDonnell, D., Byrne, D., Cullen, M., Majerus, K., Grennan, A., O’Connell, D., Marshall, K., Tierney, G., McAuliffe, W., O’Brien, B., O’Riordan, P., MacHale, C., Sweetman, P.,D’Arcy, K., & O’Brien, A. (2009). Smart Schools = Smart Economy – Report of the ICT in Schools Joint Advisory Group to the Minister for Education and Science. Ireland: Department of Education and Science. https://www.education.ie/en/Publications/Policy-Reports/Smart-Schools=Smart-Economy.pdf. Accessed 18 Apr 2018.
  66. Resnick, L. B. (1987). Education and learning to think. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ISBN 0309037859.Google Scholar
  67. Schank, R. C. (1995). What we learn when we learn by doing (Research Paper). Institute for the Learning Sciences, Northwestern University, Technical Report No. 60. http://cogprints.org/637/1/LearnbyDoing_Schank.html. Accessed 26 June 2017.
  68. Schwab, K. (2017). The fourth industrial revolution. New York: Crown Business.Google Scholar
  69. Scott, C. L. (2015). The futures of learning 3: What kind of pedagogies for the 21st century? (ERF Working Papers Series, No. 15). Paris: UNESCO Education Research and Foresight. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002431/243126e.pdf. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.
  70. Siemens, G. (2004). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. Elearnspace everything elearning. http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm. Accessed 15 Feb 2014.
  71. Sigg, S. (2018). How devices will observe and perceive in the future: Advances in AI through ubiquitous perception. Conference presentation, Information Energy, 2018, attended by author R. Gallon, Amsterdam, 1 March 2018.Google Scholar
  72. Stainback, W., & Stainback, W. C. (1989). Classroom organization for diversity among students. In D. Biklen et al. (Eds.), Schooling and disability. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, National Society for the Study of Education Yearbooks.Google Scholar
  73. UNESCO. (1994). The Salamanca statement and framework for action on special needs education. Resolution adopted by the World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality, Salamanca, Spain, 7–10 June 1994. ED-94/WS/1. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0009/000984/098427eo.pdf. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.
  74. UNESCO. (2011). UNESCO ICT competency framework for teachers Version 2.0. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002134/213475e.pdf. Accessed 18 Apr 2018.
  75. UNESCO. (2018). Strategy Lab. Brainstorming session at the end of Mobile Learning Week, 2018. Proposal made by Davor Orlic, of Knowledge 4 All Foundation, U.K. in discussion session attended by the authors, 30 March 2018.Google Scholar
  76. United Nations. (2015). Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development (Resolution of the United Nations, A/Res/70/1). https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf. Accessed 11 Apr 2018.
  77. Victoria State Government. (2017). Positive climate for learning – Health and wellbeing, dimension 3: Health. Victoria State Government, Education and Training, The Education State. http://www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/school/teachers/management/dimension3healthcont.pdf. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.
  78. Volkan Yüzer, T., & Kurubacek, G. (2004). Producing interactive educational radio programs for distance learning. ELEARN 2004, 1587–1594. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED489941.pdf. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.
  79. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Collection of essays, edited by Michael Cole, Vera John-Steiner, Sylvia Scribner, & Ellen Souberman. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. http://ouleft.org/wp-content/uploads/Vygotsky-Mind-in-Society.pdf. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.
  80. Warschauer, M., & Healey, D. (1998). Computers and language learning: An overview. Language Teaching, 31, 51–71.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444800012970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Weiser, M., Gold, R., & Brown, J. S. (1999). The origins of ubiquitous computing research at PARC in the late 1980s. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~jasonh/courses/ubicomp-sp2007/papers/03-weiser-origins.pdf. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.
  82. Williams, D. (2018). Webinars: Learning gardens and learning landscapes. North American Association for Environmental Education. https://naaee.org/eepro/learning/monthly-webinar-series
  83. Winthrop, R., McGivney, E., Williams, T. P., & Shankar, P. (2016). Innovation and technology to accelerate progress in education – Report to the International Commission on Financing Global Education Opportunity. Center for Universal Education at the Brookings Institution. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/global_20170223_innovation-and-technology.pdf. Accessed 18 Apr 2018.
  84. Zimmer, B., Harris, R., & Muirhead, B. (2000). Building an online learning community (Online Tutoring e-book #3). https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/nmp/sonet/resources/otis/t3-06.pdf. Accessed 6 Apr 2018.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Transformation SocietySt. Etienne EstréchouxFrance
  2. 2.Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Universitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations