Jose Rizal pp 55-70 | Cite as

The Solution of the Enigma in El Filibusterismo

  • Lisandro E. Claudio
Part of the Global Political Thinkers book series (GPT)


This chapter examines Rizal’s second, more incendiary novel, El Filibusterismo. If the Noli was an experiment in liberal reformism, the Fili is an experiment in revolution. Using the character of Simoun—the radicalized Ibarra who goes home to the Philippines to foment an insurrection—Rizal tests the viability of revolution in the Philippines. Like Ibarra’s school, Simoun’s revolution is a failure. This chapter concludes that the Fili is an intentionally ambiguous novel—a novel that refuses to make recommendations about revolutionary violence, but rather poses Socratic questions about how a people should earn their liberty.


El Filibusterismo Rizal Liberalism Revolution Subversion 


  1. Aguilar, Filomeno V. 2005. Tracing Origins: Ilustrado Nationalism and the Racial Science of Migration Waves. The Journal of Asian Studies 64 (03): 605–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ———. 2011. Filibustero, Rizal, and the Manilamen of the Nineteenth Century. Philippine Studies 59 (4): 429–469.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, Benedict R.O’G. 2007. Under Three Flags: Anarchism and the Anti-Colonial Imagination. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing Inc.Google Scholar
  4. Blumentritt, Ferdinand. 1891. Sketches. La Solidaridad Year 3, no. 49. In La Solidaridad, vol. 3, Trans. Guadalupe Fores-Ganzon. Pasig City: Fundacion Santiago, 1996.Google Scholar
  5. Constantino, Renato. 2005. Veneration Without Understanding. The Philippine Reporter, June 16.
  6. Guerrero, Leon Ma. 2012. The First Filipino: A Biography of Jose Rizal. Makati City: Guerrero Publishing.Google Scholar
  7. Hau, Caroline S. 2017. Did Padre Damaso Rape Pia Alba?: Reticence, Revelation, and Revolution in Jose Rizal’s Novels. Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints 65 (2): 137–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Joaquin, Nick. 2005. A Question of Heroes. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing Inc.Google Scholar
  9. Ocampo, Ambeth R. 2013. Meaning and History: The Rizal Lectures. Revised ed. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing Inc.Google Scholar
  10. Quibuyen, Floro. 1997. Rizal and the Revolution. Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints 45 (2): 225–257.Google Scholar
  11. Retana, Wenceslao. 1907. Vida y Escritos Del Dr. Jose Rizal. Madrid: Liberaria General de V. Suarez.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisandro E. Claudio
    • 1
  1. 1.De La Salle UniversityManilaPhilippines

Personalised recommendations