TestGardener: A Program for Optimal Scoring and Graphical Analysis

  • Juan LiEmail author
  • James O. Ramsay
  • Marie Wiberg
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics book series (PROMS, volume 265)


The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how to use TestGardener to analyze testing data with various item types and explain some main displays. TestGardener is a software designed to aid the development, evaluation, and use of multiple choice examinations, psychological scales, questionnaires, and similar types of data. This software implements the optimal scoring of binary and multi-option items, and uses spline smoothing to obtain item characteristics curves (ICCs) that better fit the real data. Using TestGardner does not require any programming skill or formal statistical knowledge, which will make optimal scoring and item response theory more approachable for test analysts, test developers, researchers, and general public.


Item response theory Graphical analysis software Optimal scoring Spline smoothing 



This research was funded by the Swedish Research Council (grant. 2014-578).


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mathematics and StatisticsMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Department of StatisticsUSBE, Umeå UniversityUmeåSweden

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