Theoretical Framework

Part of the Educational Governance Research book series (EGTU, volume 11)


In this chapter, we describe the theoretical framework underpinning our comparative and multilevel research study. We first define accountability as a relationship in the continuation of Mark Bovens’ perspective. Then we synthesize the four main approaches of education accountability available in the international literature: the typological approach, the political approach questioning the transformations of governance of education systems, the econometric approach on the effects of accountability on academic performance, and the more sociological approach on the implementation and local reception of accountability policies. We show the scope and the limitations of each approach to better stress the possibilities offered by our theoretical framework. The latter combines the North American neo-institutionalist approach, either organizational or sociohistorical, with the French sociological policy analysis (sociologie de l’action publique). It is based on three concepts. The first one is that of policy trajectory that we define as a combination of three processes: path dependence on earlier choices, policy bricolage, and translation by certain national actors of policy ideas and instruments circulating on a transnational level. The second one is policy mediation: accountability policies are co-constructed at all levels of public action by different actors and organizations that transfer, translate, and contextualize these policies, depending on various factors. The third concept is that of policy instrumentation understood as the set of problems posed by the choice, the implementation, and the usage of policy instruments. These three concepts allow us to study in depth accountability policies’ implementation itself.


Neo-institutionalism French policy analysis Policy trajectory Mediation Policy instruments 


  1. Akrich, M., Callon, M., & Latour, B. (2006). Sociologie de la traduction. Textes fondateurs. Paris: Presses des Mines.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altrichter, H., Heinrich, M., & Soukup-Altrichter, K. (Eds.). (2011). Shulentwicklung durch Shulprofilierung ? Zur Veränderung von Koordinations-mechanismen im Schulsystem. Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verslag.Google Scholar
  3. Altrichter, H., & Kemethofer, D. (2015). Does accountability pressure through school inspections promote school improvement? School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 26(1), 32–56. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, G., & Cohen, M. I. (2015). Redesigning the identities of teachers and leaders: A framework for studying new professionalism and educator resistance. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 23, 1–29.Google Scholar
  5. Au, W. (2007). High-stakes testing and curricular control: A qualitative metasynthesis. Educational Researcher, 36(5), 258–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ball, S. J. (1987). The micro-politics of the school: Towards a theory of school organization. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  7. Ball, S. J. (1994). Education reform: A critical and post-structural approach. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Ball, S. J. (1997). Policy sociology and critical social research: A personal review of recent education policy and policy research. British Educational Research Journal, 23(3), 257–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ball, S. J. (1998). Big policies/small world: An introduction to international perspectives in education policy. Comparative Education, 34(2), 119–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ball, S. J. (2003a). The teacher’s soul and the terrors of performativity. Journal of Education Policy, 18(2), 215–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ball, S. J. (2003b). Class strategies and the education market. London: Routledge Falmer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ball, S. J. (2012). The micro-politics of the school: Towards a theory of school organization. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ball, S. J. (2015). Education, governance and the tyranny of numbers. Journal of Education Policy, 30(3), 299–301. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ball, S. J., Maguire, M., Braun, A., & Hoskins, K. (2011). Policy actors: Doing policy work in schools. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 32(4), 625–639.Google Scholar
  15. Ball, S. J., & Maroy, C. (2009). School’s logics of action as mediation and compromise between internal dynamics end external constraints and pressures. Compare. A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 39(1), 99–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barbana, S., Dellisse, S. B., Dumay, X., & Dupriez, V. (2016). Vers un recouplage politique/pratique ? Études de cas dans l’enseignement secondaire belge francophone. Cahiers de recherche du Girsef, (105).Google Scholar
  17. Barrère, A. (2006). Sociologie des chefs d’établissement. Paris: Presses universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  18. Barrère, A. (2009). Les directions d’établissement scolaire à l’épreuve de l’évaluation locale. Carrefours de l’éducation, 28(2), 199–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ben Ayed, C. (2009). Le nouvel ordre éducatif local. Paris: Presses universitaires de France.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boltanski, L., & Chiapello, E. (1999). Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  21. Bovens, M. (2007). Analysing and assessing accountability: A conceptual framework. European Law Journal, 13(4), 447–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Boxenbaum, E., & Jonsson, S. (2008). lsomorphism, diffusion and decoupling. In R. Greenwood, C. Oliver, R. Suddaby, & K. Sahlin (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of organizational institutionalism (pp. 78–97). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Braun, A., Ball, S. J., & Maguire, M. (2011). Policy enactments in schools introduction: Towards a toolbox for theory and research. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 32(4), 581–583.Google Scholar
  24. Braun, A., Ball, S. J., Maguire, M., & Hoskins, K. (2011). Taking context seriously: Towards explaining policy enactments in the secondary school. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 32(4), 585–596.Google Scholar
  25. Braun, A., Maguire, M., & Ball, S. J. (2010). Policy enactments in the UK secondary school: Examining policy, practice and school positioning. Journal of Education Policy, 25(4), 547–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Broadfoot, P. (2000). Un nouveau mode de régulation dans un système décentralisé: l’État évaluateur. Revue française de pédagogie, 130, 43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brown, P., Lauder, H., & Ashton, D. (2008). Education, globalisation and the future of the knowledge economy. European Educational Research Journal, 7(2), 131–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bruns, B., Filmer, D., & Patrinos, H. A. (2011). Making schools work. New evidence on accountability reforms. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Buisson-Fenet, H. (2007). L’éducation scolaire au prisme de la science politique: vers une sociologie politique comparée de l’action publique éducative? Revue internationale de politique comparée, 14(3), 385–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Buisson-Fenet, H., & La Naour, G. (Eds.). (2008). Les professionnels de l’action publique face à leurs instruments. Toulouse, France: Octares Edition.Google Scholar
  31. Buisson-Fenet, H., & Pons, X. (2012). L’européanisation de l’École française en débat: le cas contrasté de l’évaluation des établissements scolaires. Politix, 2, 129–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Buisson-Fenet, H., & Pons, X. (2014). School evaluation policies and educating states: Trends in four European countries. Berne, Switzerland: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  33. Bushnell, M. (2003). Teachers in the schoolhouse panopticon – Complicity and resistance. Education and Urban Society, 35(3), 251–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Callon, M. (1986). Some elements of a sociology of translation: Domestication of the scallops and the fisherman in St Brieuc Bay. In K. Knorr-Cetina & A. V. Cicourel (Eds.), Advances in social theory and methodology: Toward an integration of micro and macro-sociologies (pp. 196–223). Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  35. Campbell, J. L. (2004). Institutional change and globalization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Carnoy, M., & Loeb, S. (2002). Does external accountability affect student outcomes? A cross-state analysis. Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 24(4), 305–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cattonar, B., Dumay, X., & Maroy, C. (2013). Politique d’évaluation externe et recomposition des professionnalités dans l’enseignement primaire: un cas de responsabilisation (accountability) douce. Education et sociétés, 32(2), 35–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cattonar, B., Lessard, C., & Maroy, C. (2010). La professionnalisation de l’enseignement primaire et secondaire, une comparaison entre la Belgique francophone et le Québec (1990–2010). Les Dossiers des Sciences de l’Éducation. Revue Internationale des Sciences de l’Éducation, 24, 39–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Chiang, H. (2009). How accountability pressure on failing schools affects student achievement. Journal of Public Economics, 93(9–10), 1045–1057. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Clarke, J. (2004). Changing welfare, changing states: New directions in social policy. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Coburn, C. E. (2001). Shaping teacher sensemaking: School leaders and the enactment of reading policy. Educational Policy, 19(3), 476–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Coburn, C. E., & Talbert, J. (2006). Conceptions of evidence use in school districts: Mapping the terrain. American Journal of Education, 112(4), 469–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Coburn, C. E., & Turner, E. O. (2012). The practice of data use: An introduction. American Journal of Education, 118(2), 99–111. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Commaille, J. (2006). Sociologie de l’action publique. In L. Boussaguet, S. Jacquot, & P. Ravinet (Eds.), Dictionnaire des politiques publiques (pp. 415–423). Paris: Les presses de Sciences Po.Google Scholar
  45. Commaille, J., & Jobert, B. (1998). Les métamorphoses de la régulation politique. Paris: LGDJ.Google Scholar
  46. Czerniawski, G. (2011). Emerging teachers-emerging identities: Trust and accountability in the construction of newly qualified teachers in Norway, Germany, and England. European Journal of Teacher Education, 34(4), 431–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dale, R. (1999). Specifying globalization effects on national policy: A focus on the mechanisms. Journal of Education Policy, 14(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dale, R. (2006). From comparison to translation: Extending the research imagination? Globalisation, Societies and Education, 4(2), 179–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dale, R., & Robertson, S. L. (2002). The varying effects of regional organizations as subjects of globalization of education. Comparative Education Review, 46(1), 10–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Datnow, A. (2006). Connection in the policy chain : The “co-construction” of implementation in comprehensive school reform. In M. I. Honig (Ed.), New directions in education policy implementation (pp. 105–122). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  51. Datnow, A., & Park, V. (2009). Conceptualizing policy implementation. In Handbook of education policy research (pp. 348–361). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. de Landsheere, G. (1994). Le pilotage des systèmes d’éducation. Bruxelles, Belgium: De Boeck.Google Scholar
  53. Demailly, L. (2001). Evaluer les politiques éducatives: Sens, enjeux, pratiques. In L. Demailly (Ed.), Enjeux de l’évaluation et régulation des systèmes scolaires. Bruxelles, Belgium: De Boeck.Google Scholar
  54. Demailly, L. (2003). L’évaluation comme apprentissage et négociation. Revue française de pédagogie, 142, 107–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Demailly, L., Gadrey, N., Deubel, P., & Verdière, J. (1998). Evaluer les établissements scolaires: enjeux, expériences, débats. Paris: L’Harmattan.Google Scholar
  56. Demazière, D., Lessard, C., & Morrissette, J. (2013). Introduction. Les effets de la Nouvelle Gestion Publique sur le travail des professionnels: Transpositions, variations, ambivalences. Education et sociétés, 32(2), 5–20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Demeuse, M., & Baye, A. (2009). Indicateurs d’équité educative. Une analyse de la ségrégation académique et sociale dans quelques pays européens. Revue française de pédagogie, 165, 91–103.Google Scholar
  58. Derouet, J.-L. (2000). L’école dans plusieurs mondes. Bruxelles, Belgium/Paris: De Boeck.Google Scholar
  59. Diamond, J. B., & Spillane, J. P. (2004). High-stakes accountability in urban elementary schools: Challenging or reproducing inequality? Teachers College Record, 106(6), 1145–1176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organisational fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2), 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Dobry, M. (2000). Les voies incertaines de la transitologie: choix stratégiques, séquences historiques, bifurcations et processus de path dependence. Revue française de science politique, 50e année(4–5), 585–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dumay, X. (2009). Que sait-on de l’efficacité des écoles ? In X. Dumay & V. Dupriez (Eds.), L’efficacité dans l’enseignement. Promesses et zones d’ombre (pp. 73–88). Paris: De Boeck.Google Scholar
  63. Dumay, X., Cattonar, B., Maroy, C., & Mangez, C. (2013). The local institutionalization of accountability in education: Network and bureaucratic modes of implementation. International Journal of Sociology of Education, 2(2), 99–141. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dumay, X., Dupriez, V., & Maroy, C. (2010). Ségrégation, effets de composition et inégalités de résultats. Revue Française de Sociologie, 51(3), 461–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Dupriez, V., & Malet, R. (Eds.). (2013). L’évaluation dans les systèmes scolaires. Accommodements du travail et reconfiguration des professionnalités. Bruxelles, Belgium: De Boeck.Google Scholar
  66. Dupriez, V., & Mons, N. (2011). Introduction. Les politiques d’accountability. Du changement institutionnel aux transformations locales. Éducation comparée, 5, 7–16.Google Scholar
  67. Dutercq, Y. (2001). Comment peut-on administrer l’école? Pour une approche politique de l’administration de l’éducation. Paris: PUF.Google Scholar
  68. Dutercq, Y., & Lanéelle, X. (2013). La dispute autour des évaluations des élèves dans l’enseignement français du premier degré. Sociologie, 4(1), 44–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Dutercq, Y., & Maroy, C. (Eds.). (2017). Professionnalisme enseignants et politiques de responsabilisation. Bruxelles, Belgium: De Boeck.Google Scholar
  70. Easley II, J., & Tulowitzki, P. (2016). Educational accountability: International perspectives on challenges and possibilities for school leadership. New York/London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Elias, N. (1991). La société des individus. Paris: Fayard.Google Scholar
  72. Elmore, R. F., Abelmann, C. H., & Fuhrman, S. H. (1996). The new accountability in state education reform: From process to performance. In H. F. Ladd (Ed.), Holding schools accountable: Performance-based reform in education (pp. 65–98). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  73. Evetts, J. (2008). The management of professionalism. A contemporary paradox. In S. Gewirtz, P. Mahony, I. Hextall, & A. Cribb (Eds.), Changing teacher professionalism. International trends, challenges and ways forward (pp. 17–30). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  74. Falabella, A. (2014). The performing school: The effects of market & accountability policies. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 22(70), 1–29.Google Scholar
  75. Figlio, D., & Loeb, S. (2011). School accountability. In E. A. Hanushek, S. Machin, & L. Woessmann (Eds.), Handbooks in economics (Vol. 3, pp. 383–421). Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  76. Finnigan, K. S., & Gross, B. (2007). Do accountability policy sanctions influence teacher motivation? Lessons from Chicago’s low-performing schools. American Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 594–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Fouilleux, È. (2000). Entre production et institutionnalisation des idées. La réforme de la Politique agricole commune. Revue française de science politique, 50(2), 277–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Friedberg, E. (1993). Le pouvoir et la règle. Paris: Le Seuil.Google Scholar
  79. Fullan, M., Rincon-Gallardo, S., & Hargreaves, A. (2015). Professional capital as accountability. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 23(15), 1–17.Google Scholar
  80. Garcia, S., & Montagne, S. (2011). Pour une sociologie critique des dispositifs d’évaluation. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales, 189(4), 4–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gewirtz, S., Mahony, P., Hextall, I., & Cribb, A. (2008). Changing teacher professionalism. International trends, challenges and ways forward. New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  82. Greenwood, R., Suddaby, R., & Hinings, C. R. (2002). Theorizing change: The role of professional associations in the transformation of institutionalized fields. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1), 58–80.Google Scholar
  83. Grek, S. (2008). From symbols to numbers: The shifting technologies of education governance in Europe. European Educational Research Journal, 7(2), 208–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Grodsky, E., Warren, J. R., & Kalogrides, D. (2009). State high school exit examinations and NAEP long-term trends in reading and mathematics 1971–2004. Educational Policy, 23(4), 589–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hall, D., & McGinity, R. (2015). Conceptualizing teacher professional identity in neoliberal times: Resistance, compliance and reform. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 23, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Hallinger, P. (2003). Leading educational change: Reflections on the practice of instructional and transformational leadership. Cambridge Journal of Education, 33(3), 329–352. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Halpern, C., Hassenteufel, P., & Zittoun, P. (2018). Policy analysis in France. Bristol, UK: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hanushek, E. A., & Raymond, M. E. (2005). Does school accountability lead to improved student performance? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 24(2), 297–327. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hargreaves, A., Lieberman, A., Fullan, M., & Hopkins, D. (Eds.). (2010). Second international handbook of educational change. (Part 1 & 2). Dordrecht, The Netherlands/Heidelberg, Germany/London/New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  90. Harris, D. N., & Herrington, C. D. (2006). Accountability, standards, and the growing achievement gap: Lessons from the past half-century. American Journal of Education, 112(2), 209–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Heilig, J. V., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). Accountability texas-style: The progress and learning of urban minority students in a high-stakes testing context. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 30(2), 75–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hellrung, K., & Hartig, J. (2013). Understanding and using feedback – A review of empirical studies concerning feedback from external evaluations to teachers. Educational Research Review, 9, 174–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Honig, M. I. (Ed.). (2006). New directions in education policy implementation. Confronting complexity. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  94. Hood, C. (1986). The tools of government. Chatham, UK: Chatham House.Google Scholar
  95. Hood, C. (1991). A public management for all seasons? Public Administration, 69, 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hood, C. (1996). Exploring variations in public management reform of the 1980s. In H. A. G. Hans, M. Bekke, J. L. Perry, & T. A. Toonen (Eds.), Civil service systems in comparative perspective (pp. 268–287). Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Hood, C. (2006). Gaming in targetworld: The targets approach to managing British public services. Public Administration Review, 66(4), 514–521. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hood, C. (2007). Public service management by numbers: Why does it vary? where has it come from? What are the gaps and the puzzles? Public Money & Management, 27(2), 95–102. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hood, C. (2012). Public management by numbers as a performance-enhancing drug: Two hypotheses. Public Administration Review, 72(1), 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Hooghe, L. (1995). Subnational mobilisation in the European Union. West European Politics, 18(3), 175–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Imsen, G., Blossing, U., & Moos, L. (2017). Reshaping the Nordic education model in an era of efficiency. Changes in the comprehensive school project in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden since the millennium. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 61(5), 568–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Jaafar, S. B., & Anderson, S. (2007). Policy trends and tensions in accountability for educational management and services in Canada. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 53(2), 207–227.Google Scholar
  103. Jacob, B. A. (2005). Accountability, incentives and behavior: The impact of high-stakes testing in the Chicago Public Schools. Journal of Public Economics, 89(5–6), 761–796. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Jacobsson, B. (2006). Regulated regulators: Global trends of state transformation. In M.-L. Djelic & K. Sahlin-Andersson (Eds.), Transnational governance. Institutional dynamics of regulation (pp. 205–224). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Jeffery, C. (1997). L’émergence d’une gouvernance multi-niveaux dans l’Union européenne: une approche des politiques nationales. Politiques et management public, 15(3), 211–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kelchtermans, G., & Vandenberghe, R. (1998). Internal use of external control and support for quality improvement. The response to a national policy by primary schools (Evaluation of a national policy for qulity improvement in schools: External requirements versus local implementation patterns). Leuven, Belgium: University Leuven.Google Scholar
  107. Kogan, M. (1988). Education accountability: An analytic overview. London/Dover, NH: Hutchinson Education.Google Scholar
  108. Ladd, H. F., & Lauen, D. L. (2010). Status versus growth: The distributional effects of school accountability policies. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 29(3), 426–450. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lascoumes, P., & Le Galès, P. (2004). Gouverner par les instruments. Paris: Presses de la fondation nationale des sciences politiques.Google Scholar
  110. Lascoumes, P., & Le Galès, P. (2007). Sociologie de l’action publique. Paris: Armand Colin.Google Scholar
  111. Lascoumes, P., & Simard, L. (2011). L’action publique au prisme de ses instruments. Revue française de science politique, 61(1), 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Laval, C., Vergne, F., Clément, P., & Dreux, G. (2012). La nouvelle école capitaliste. Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
  113. Le Galès, P., & Thatcher, M. (1995). Les réseaux de politique publique: débat autour des policy networks. Paris: Editions L'Harmattan.Google Scholar
  114. Le Pape, Y., & Smith, A. (1998). Décentralisations et agricultures: Analyse comparée de deux régions françaises. Politiques et management public, 16(4), 53–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Lee, J. (2008). Is test driven external accountability effective Synthesizing the evidence from cross state Causal comparative and correlational studies. Review of Educational Research, 78(3), 608–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lee, J. (2010). Trick or treat: New ecology of education accountability system in the USA. Journal of Education Policy, 25(1), 73–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Leithwood, K. (2001). School leadership in the context of accountability policies. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 4(3), 217–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Leithwood, K., & Earl, L. (2000). Educational accountability effects: An international perspective. Peabody Journal of Education, 75(4), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Leithwood, K., Edge, K., & Jantzi, D. (1999). Educational accountability: The state of the art. Gutersloh, Germany: Bertelsmann Foundation Publishers.Google Scholar
  120. Lessard, C., & Carpentier, A. (2015). Politiques éducatives: la mise en oeuvre. Paris: Presses universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  121. Lessard, C., & Desjardins, P.-D. (2009). Chapitre 7. Les commissions scolaires québécoises: des acteurs stratégiques attentifs à leur environnement. In G. Pelletier (Ed.), La gouvernance en éducation (pp. 127–145). Brussels, Belgium: De Boeck Supérieur.Google Scholar
  122. Lessard, C., & Meirieu, P. (2008). L’obligation de résultats en éducation: évolutions, perspectives et enjeux internationaux. Brussels, Belgium: De Boeck Supérieur.Google Scholar
  123. Lévi-Strauss, C. (1962). La pensée sauvage. Paris: Plon.Google Scholar
  124. Lindberg, S. I. (2013). Mapping accountability: Core concept and subtypes. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 79(2), 202–226. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Lingard, B., Martino, W., & Rezai-Rashti, G. (2013). Testing regimes, accountabilities and education policy: Commensurate global and national developments. Journal of Education Policy, 28(5), 539–556. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Linn, R. L. (2000). Assessments and accountability. Educational Researcher, 29(2), 4–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Lury, C., Parisi, L., & Terranova, T. (2012). Introduction: The becoming topological of culture. Theory, Culture & Society, 29(4–5), 3–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Maguire, M., Braun, A., & Ball, S. (2011). Where you stand depends on where you sit’: The social construction of policy enactments in the (English) secondary school. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 36(4), 485–499. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Mahoney, J. (2000). Path dependence in historical sociology. Theory and Society, 29(4), 507–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Mahoney, J., & Thelen, K. (2010). Explaining institutional change: Ambiguity, agency, and power. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  131. Maier, U. (2010). Accountability policies and teachers’ acceptance and usage of school performance feedback: A comparative study. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 21(2), 145–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Malen, B. (2006). Revisiting policy implementation as a political phenomenon. In New directions in education policy implementation (pp. 83–105). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  133. Mangez, E. (2001). Régulation de l’action éducative dans les années quatre-vingt-dix. Education et sociétés, 8, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Marks, G. (1992). Structural policy in the European community. In A. Sbragia (Ed.), Europolitics: Institutions and policy-making in the “New” European community (pp. 191–224). Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
  135. Marks, G. (1993). Structural policy and multilevel governance in the EC. The Maastricht debates and beyond, 392.Google Scholar
  136. Maroy, C. (2006). École, régulation et marché: une analyse de six espaces scolaires locaux en Europe (1st ed.). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Maroy, C. (2008). Vers une régulation post-bureaucratique des systèmes d’enseignement en Europe? Sociologie et sociétés, 40(1), 31–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Maroy, C. (2009). Convergences and hybridization of educational policies around “Post-Bureaucratic” models of regulation. Compare. A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 39(1), 71–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Maroy, C. (2012). Towards post-bureaucratic modes of governance: A European perspective. In G. Steiner-Khamsi & F. Waldow (Eds.), World yearbook of education 2012. Policy borrowing and lending in education (pp. 62–79). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  140. Maroy, C. (Ed.). (2013). L’école à l’épreuve de la performance. Les politiques de régulation par les résultats. Bruxelles, Belgium/Paris: de Boeck.Google Scholar
  141. Maroy, C. (2015). Comparing accountability tools and rationales. Various ways, various effects. In H.-G. Kotthof & E. Klerides (Eds.), Governing educational spaces. Knowledge, teaching and learning in transition (pp. 35–58). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Maroy, C., & Demailly, L. (2004). Les régulations intermédiaires des systèmes éducatifs en Europe. Quelles convergences? Recherches Sociologiques, 35(2), 5–24.Google Scholar
  143. Maroy, C., & Doray, P. (2008). Présentation du numéro thématique. Les nouvelles politiques d’éducation et de formation. Sociologie et sociétés, 40(1), 11–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Maroy, C., Mangez, C., Dumay, X., & Cattonar, B. (2012). Processus de traduction et institutionnalisation d’outils de régulation basés sur les connaissances dans l’enseignement primaire en Belgique. Recherches Sociologiques et Anthropologiques, 43(2), 95–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Maroy, C., Pons, X., & Dupuy, C. (2017). Vernacular globalisations: Neo-statist accountability policies in France and Quebec education. Journal of Education Policy, 32(1), 100–122. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Maroy, C., & Voisin, A. (2014). Une typologie des politiques d’accountability en éducation: l’incidence de l’instrumentation et des théories de la régulation. Education Compare, 11, 31–58.Google Scholar
  147. Maroy, C., & Voisin, A. (2017). Think piece on accountability in education (Background paper prepared for the 2017/8 Global Education Monitoring Report. Accountability in education: Meeting our commitments). Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  148. Martens, K. (2007). How to become an influential actor: The ‘Comparative Turn’ in OECD education policy. In Transformations of the state and global governance (pp. 40–56). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  149. Mintrop, H. (2004). Schools on probation. How accountability works (and doesn’t work). New York/London: Teachers College, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  150. Mintrop, H., & Suderman, G. L. (2009). Predictable failure of federal sanctions-driven accountability for school improvement- and why we may retain it anyway. Educational Researcher, 38(5), 353–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Mons, N. (2009). Effets théoriques et réels des politiques d’évaluation standardisée. Revue française de pédagogie, 169, 99–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Mons, N., & Dupriez, V. (2010). Les politiques d’accountability. Recherche et Formation, 65, 45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Moos, L. (2009). Hard and soft governance: The journey from transnational agencies to school leadership. European Educational Research Journal, 8(3), 397–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Muller, J., & Hernandez, F. (2010). On the geography of accountability: Comparative analysis of teachers’ experiences across seven European countries. Journal of Educational Change, 11(4), 307–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Muller, P. (2000). Les politiques publiques. Paris: Presses universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  156. Normand, R., & Derouet, J.-L. (2009). Quelles politiques pour l’égalité ? Savoirs, gouvernances et obligation de résultats. Réflexions croisées anglo-américaines. Lyon, France: INRP.Google Scholar
  157. Osborn, M., McNess, E., Broadfoot, P., (with Pollard, A. & Triggs, P.). (2000). What teachers do. Changing policy and practice in primary education. London/New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  158. Ozga, J. (2009). Governing education through data in England: From regulation to self-evaluation. Journal of Education Policy, 24(2), 149–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Ozga, J., & Grek, S. (2012). Governing through learning. School self-evaluation as a knowledge-based regulatory tool. Recherches Sociologiques et Anthropologiques, 43(2), 35–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Palau, Y. (2011). La gouvernance et normativité. La gouvernance des sociétés contemporaines au regard des mutations de la normativité. Québec, Canada: Presses de l’Université Laval.Google Scholar
  161. Papadopoulos, Y. (2001). Transformations du style de l’action publique et responsabilité politique. Politiques et Management Public, 19(1), 165–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Pierson, P. (1994). Dismantling the welfare state? Reagan, Thatcher and the politics of retrenchment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Pierson, P. (2001). The new politics of the welfare state. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Pons, X. (2010). Evaluer l’action éducative (Education & Société). Paris: Presses universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  165. Pons, X., & van Zanten, A. (2007). Knowledge circulation, regulation and governance, deliverable 4 literature review project KnowandPol (pp. 9–38). Brussels, Belgium: 6th FPRD EU.Google Scholar
  166. Powell, W. W., & Di Maggio, P. J. (Eds.). (1991). The new institutionalism in organizational analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  167. Ranson, S. (2003). Public accountability in the age of neo-liberal governance. Journal of Education Policy, 18(5), 459–480. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Reback, R. (2008). Teaching to the rating: School accountability and the distribution of student achievement. Journal of Public Economics, 92(5–6), 1394–1415. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Reynaud, J.-D. (1988). Les régulations dans les organisations: Régulation de contrôle et régulation autonome. Revue Française de Sociologie, 39(1), 5–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Rizvi, F., & Lingard, B. (2000). Globalization and education: Complexities and contingencies. Educational Theory, 50(4), 419–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Rozenwajn, E., & Dumay, X. (2014). Les effets de l’évaluation externe sur les pratiques enseignantes: une revue de la littérature. Revue française de pédagogie, 189, 105–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Salamon, L. M. (Ed.). (2002). The tools of governance. A guide to the new governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  173. Scheerens, J. (Ed.). (2012). School leadership effects revisited. Review and meta-analysis of empirical studies. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  174. Scott, W. R. (1995). Institutions and organizations: Toward a theoretical synthesis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  175. Segerholm, C. (2012). The quality turn: Political and methodological challenges in contemporary educational evaluation and assessment. Education Inquiry, 3(2), 115–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Sellar, S. (2015). Data infrastructure: A review of expanding accountability systems and large-scale assessments in education. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 36(5), 765–777.Google Scholar
  177. Shannon, G. S., & Bylsma, P. (2004). Characteristics of improved school districts : Themes from research. Olympia, WA: Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction.Google Scholar
  178. Skedsmo, G., & Mausethagen, S. (2016). Accountability policies and educational leadership-a Norwegian perspective. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  179. Smith, A. (1999). Public policy analysis in contemporary France: Academic approaches, questions and debates. Public Administration, 77(1), 111–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Smith, A. (2004). Le gouvernement de l’Union européenne. Une sociologie politique. Paris: LGDJ.Google Scholar
  181. Spillane, J. P. (2012). Data in practice: Conceptualizing the data-based decision-making phenomena. American Journal of Education, 118(2), 113–141. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Spillane, J. P., & Kenney, A. W. (2012). School administration in a changing education sector: The US experience. Journal of Educational Administration, 50(5), 541–561. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Spillane, J. P., Parise, L. M., & Sherer, J. Z. (2011). Organizational routines as coupling mechanisms: Policy, school administration, and the technical core. American Educational Research Journal, 48(3), 586–619. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Spillane, J. P., Reiser, B. J., & Gomez, L. M. (2006). Policy implementation and cognition. The role of human, social, and distributed cognition in framing policy implementation. In M. I. Honig (Ed.), New directions in education policy implementation. Confronting complexity (pp. 47–64). Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  185. Spillane, J. P., Reiser, B. J., & Reimer, T. (2002). Policy implementation and cognition: Reframing and refocusing implementation research. Review of Educational Research, 72(3), 387–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Steiner-Khamsi, G. (2004). The global politics of educational borrowing and lending. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  187. Steiner-Khamsi, G., Waldow, F. (2012). World yearbook of education 2012. policy borrowing and lending in education (World yearbook of education) London/New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Streeck, W., & Thelen, K. (2005). Beyond continuity. Institutional change in advanced political economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  189. Suchman, M. C. (1995). Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 571–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Sykes, G., Schneider, B., & Plank, D. N. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of education policy research. New York/London: AERA & Routledge.Google Scholar
  191. Thrupp, M. (1998). Exploring the politics of Blame: School inspection and its contestation in New Zealand and England. Comparative Education, 34(2), 195–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Treisman, P. U., & Fuller, E. J. (2001). Comment on “Searching for indirect effects of statewide reforms”. In D. Ravitch (Ed.), Brookings papers on education policy (Vol. 1, pp. 208–218). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  193. van Zanten, A. (2002). Educational change and new cleavages between head teachers, teachers and parents: Global and local perspectives on the French case. Journal of Education Policy, 17(3), 289–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. van Zanten, A. (2008). Régulation et rôle de la connaissance dans le champ éducatif en France. Sociologie et sociétés, XL(1), 69–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. van Zanten, A. (2014). Les politiques d’éducation (3rd ed.). Paris: Presses universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  196. Verger, A., & Parcerisa, L. (2017). Accountability and education in the post-2015 scenario: International trends, enactment dynamics and socio-educational effects (Background paper prepared for the 2017/8 Global Education Monitoring Report. Accountability in education: Meeting our commitments). Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  197. Veselý, A. (2013). Accountability in Central and Eastern Europe: Concept and reality. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 79(2), 310–330. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Webb, P. T. (2005). The anatomy of accountability. Journal of Education Policy, 20(2), 189–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Weinstein, J., Raczynski, D., & Hernández, M. (2016). Confiances multiples (et parfois dissociées) des enseignants chiliens. Une étude dans les écoles primaires de la région de Valparaíso. Revue internationale d’éducation de Sèvres, 72, 77–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Whitty, G., Power, S., & Halpin, D. (1998). Devolution and choice in education: The school, the state and the market. Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  201. Wolf, I., & Janssens, F. J. G. (2007). Effects and side effects of inspections and accountability in education: An overview of empirical studies. Oxford Review of Education, 33(3), 379–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Yerly, G. (2014). Les effets de l’évaluation externe des acquis des élèves sur les pratiques des enseignants. PhD thesis, Université de Fribourg, Fribourg.Google Scholar
  203. Zittoun, P. (2013). La fabrique politique des politiques publiques. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MontrealMontrealCanada
  2. 2.University of Eastern-Paris CreteilParisFrance

Personalised recommendations