Endoscopic Screening and Surveillance: Indications and Standards

  • Thierry PonchonEmail author
  • Frieder Berr
  • Tsuneo Oyama


Endoscopy is the gold standard for detection of early cancer in the gastrointestinal tract; it is approved for gastric cancer screening in Japan and South Korea and for colorectal cancer screening in many countries worldwide. A rationale is the strong reduction in the incidence of colorectal cancer after 10 years’ follow-up of colonoscopic screening with resection of all neoplastic lesions. High-risk groups are subject to different, more frequent endoscopic surveillance programs, which are summarized for esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer. The chapter explains the preparation and procedural steps of screening colonoscopy and esophago−/gastroscopy, including benchmark criteria for quality of endoscopy.


  1. 1.
    GLOBOCAN database, International Agency for Research on Cancer, WHO,
  2. 2.
    Ferlay J, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer. 2015;136:E359–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Inoue M, et al. Epidemiology of gastric cancer in Japan. Postgrad Med J. 2005;81:419–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Everett SM, et al. Early gastric cancer in Europe. Gut. 1997;41:142–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morita S, et al. Outcome of pylorus-preserving gastrectomy for early gastric cancer. Br J Surg. 2008;95:1131–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abe S, et al. Short- and long-term outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for undifferentiated early gastric cancer. Endoscopy. 2013;45:703–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gotoda T, et al. Endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer treated by guideline and expanded National Cancer Centre criteria. Br J Surg. 2010;97:868–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hamashima C, et al. Optimal interval of endoscopic screening based on stage distributions of detected gastric cancers. BMC Cancer. 2017;17:740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hirota WK, et al. ASGE guideline: the role of endoscopy in the surveillance of premalignant conditions of the upper GI tract. Gastrointest Endosc. 2006;63:570–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rex DK, et al. Colorectal cancer screening: recommendations for physicians and patients from the U.S. Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology. 2017;153:307–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vasen HF, et al. Familial colorectal cancer risk: ESMO clinical recommendations. Ann Oncol. 2009;20(Suppl 4):51–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fletcher RH, et al. Screening patients with a family history of colorectal cancer. J Gen Intern Med. 2007;22:508–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Torre LA, et al. Global cancer incidence and mortality rates and trends – an update. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2016;25:16–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zauber AG, et al. Colonoscopic polypectomy and long-term prevention of colorectal-cancer deaths. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:687–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hamashima C, et al. Mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic and radiographic screening. Cancer Sci. 2015;106:1744–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Evans JA, et al. ASGE guideline. The role of endoscopy in the management of premalignant and malignant conditons of the stomach. Gastrointest Endosc. 2015;82:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ebell MH, et al. Cancer screening recommendations: an international comparison of high income countries. Public Health Rev. 2018;39:7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bevan R, Rutter RD. Colorectal cancer screening – who, how, and when? Clin Endosc. 2018;51:37–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Towler B, et al. A systematic review of the effects of screening for colorectal cancer using the faecal occult blood test, Hemoccult. BMJ. 1998;317:559–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kaminski MF, et al. Performance measures for lower gastrointestinal endoscopy: a European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) quality improvement initiative. United European Gastroenterol J. 2017;5:309–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Winawer SJ, et al. Colorectal cancer screening: clinical guidelines and rationale. Gastroenterology. 1997;112:594–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dunlop MG. Guidance on gastrointestinal surveillance for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis, juvenile polyposis, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Gut. 2002;51(Suppl 5):V21–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Beaugerie L, et al. Cancers complicating inflammatory bowel disease. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Farraye FA, et al. AGA technical review on the diagnosis and management of colorectal neoplasia in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:746–774, 774 e741–744; quiz e712-743.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Soetikno R, et al. Paradigm shift in the surveillance and management of dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease (West). Dig Endosc. 2016;28:266–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Laine L, et al. SCENIC international consensus statement on surveillance and management of dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastrointest Endosc. 2015;81:489–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lieberman DA, et al. Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after screening and polypectomy: a consensus update by the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:844–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Watanabe T, et al. Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR) guidelines 2016 for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Int J Clin Oncol. 2018;23:1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hamashima C, et al. The Japanese guidelines for gastric cancer screening. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2008;38:259–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Leung WK, et al. Screening for gastric cancer in Asia: current evidence and practice. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9:279–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Huntsman DG, et al. Early gastric cancer in young, asymptomatic carriers of germ-line E-cadherin mutations. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1904–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Engel LS, et al. Population attributable risks of esophageal and gastric cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95:1404–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kuwano H, et al. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma of the esophagus April 2012 edited by the Japan Esophageal Society. Esophagus. 2015;12:1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Muto M, et al. Early detection of superficial squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region and esophagus by narrow band imaging: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:1566–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Appelqvist P, et al. Lye corrosion carcinoma of the esophagus: a review of 63 cases. Cancer. 1980;45:2655–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sandler RS, et al. The risk of esophageal cancer in patients with achalasia. A population-based study. JAMA. 1995;274:1359–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Stevens HP, et al. Linkage of an American pedigree with palmoplantar keratoderma and malignancy (palmoplantar ectodermal dysplasia type III) to 17q24. Literature survey and proposed updated classification of the keratodermas. Arch Dermatol. 1996;132:640–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Spechler SJ, et al. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on the management of Barrett’s esophagus. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:1084–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shuyama K, et al. Human papillomavirus in high- and low-risk areas of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in China. Br J Cancer. 2007;96:1554–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    El-Serag HB, et al. Epidemiological differences between adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia in the USA. Gut. 2002;50:368–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hvid-Jensen F, et al. Incidence of adenocarcinoma among patients with Barrett’s esophagus. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:1375–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kelty CJ, et al. Barrett’s oesophagus: intestinal metaplasia is not essential for cancer risk. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:1271–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gray MR, et al. The role of smoking and alcohol in metaplasia and cancer risk in Barrett’s columnar lined oesophagus. Gut. 1993;34:727–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kastelein F, et al. Impact of surveillance for Barrett’s oesophagus on tumor stage and survival of patients with neoplastic progression. Gut. 2016;65:548–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Schölvinck DW, et al. Detection of lesions in dysplastic Barrett’s esophhagus by community and expert endoscpists. Endoscopy. 2017;49:113–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Weusten B, et al. Endoscopic management of Barrett’s esophagus: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) position statement. Endoscopy. 2017;49:191–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shaheen NJ, et al. ACG clinical guideline: diagnosis and management of Barrett’s esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016;111:30–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fitzgerald RC, et al. British Society of Gastroenterology guidelines on diagnosis and management of Barrett’s esophagus. Gut. 2014:7–42.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Oyama T. Diagnostic strategies of superficial Barrett’s esophageal cancer for endoscopic submucosal dissection. Dig Endosc. 2013;25(Suppl 1):7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Faigel DO, et al. Quality indicators for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures: an introduction. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:866–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kaminski MF, et al. Quality indicators for colonoscopy and the risk of interval cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1795–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lee TJ, et al. Colonoscopy quality measure experience from the NHS bowel cancer screening programme. Gut. 2012;61:1050–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kudo S, et al. The problem of de novo colorectal carcinoma. Eur J Cancer. 1995;31A:1118–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Morris EJ, et al. Post-colonoscopy colorectal cancer (PCCRC) rates vary considerably depending on the method used to calculate them: a retrospective observational population-based study of PCCRC in the English National Health Service. Gut. 2015;64:1248–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Calderwood AH, et al. Boston Bowel Preparation Scale scores provide a standardized definition of adequate for describing bowel cleanliness. Gastrointest Endosc. 2014;80:269–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Oyama T. Endoscopic diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma for ESD. Tokyo: Nankodo Co., Ltd; 2010.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Muto M, Yao K, Sano Y. Atlas of endoscopy with narrow band imaging. Tokyo: SPRINGER Japan; 2015. p. 11–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yao K, et al. Development of an e-learning system for teaching endoscopists how to diagnose early gastric cancer: basic principles for improving early detection. Gastric Cancer. 2017;20:28–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bisschops R, et al. Performance measures for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: a European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy quality improvement initiative. United European Gastroenterol J. 2016;4:629–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Banerjee S, et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis for GI endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008;67:791–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Anderson MA, et al. Management of antithrombotic agents for endoscopic procedures. Gastrointest Endosc. 2009;70:1060–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Digestive Diseases, Hôpital Eduard HerriotLyonFrance
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine I, Paracelsus Medical UniversitySalzburgAustria
  3. 3.Department of Endoscopy, Saku Central Hospital Advanced Care CenterSakuJapan

Personalised recommendations