Deriving Enhanced Universal Dependencies from a Hybrid Dependency-Constituency Treebank

  • Lauma PretkalniņaEmail author
  • Laura Rituma
  • Baiba Saulīte
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11107)


The treebanks provided by the Universal Dependencies (UD) initiative are a state-of-the-art resource for cross-lingual and monolingual syntax-based linguistic studies, as well as for multilingual dependency parsing. Creating a UD treebank for a language helps further the UD initiative by providing an important dataset for research and natural language processing in that language. In this paper, we describe how we created a UD treebank for Latvian, and how we obtained both the basic and enhanced UD representations from the data in Latvian Treebank which is annotated according to a hybrid dependency-constituency grammar model. The hybrid model was inspired by Lucien Tesnière’s dependency grammar theory and its notion of a syntactic nucleus. While the basic UD representation is already a de facto standard in NLP, the enhanced UD representation is just emerging, and the treebank described here is among the first to provide both representations.


Latvian Treebank Universal Dependencies Enhanced dependencies 



This work has received financial support from the European Regional Development Fund under the grant agreements No. and No. VIAA/1/16/188.

We want to thank Ingus Jānis Pretkalniņš constructive criticism of the manuscript and anonymous reviewers for insightful comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lauma Pretkalniņa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Laura Rituma
    • 1
  • Baiba Saulīte
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Mathematics and Computer ScienceUniversity of LatviaRigaLatvia

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