Advertisement

New Experimental Technique for Studying Electron-Electron Interaction, Electron Correlation, Mechanism of Electron Emission and Electronic Properties of Surfaces

  • Sergey Samarin
  • Oleg Artamonov
  • Jim Williams
Chapter
  • 189 Downloads
Part of the Springer Series in Surface Sciences book series (SSSUR, volume 67)

Abstract

A spectrometer for two-electron coincidence spectroscopy of solid surfaces in back-reflection geometry ((e,2e) spectroscopy) is described. The combination of the coincidence technique with time-of-flight electron energy measurements enables implementation of a “complete scattering experiment” on a solid surface, where the momenta of the incident and two scattered electrons are determined. The contributions of single-step and multi-step scattering events to the emission of two time-correlated electrons can be separated on the basis of experimental geometry and kinematics. Examples of applications of (e,2e) scattering to the study of various surface phenomena and electron scattering dynamics are presented.

References

  1. U. Amaldi Jr., A. Egidi, R. Marconero, G. Pizzella, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 1001 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. O.M. Artamonov, Jour. Tech. Phys. (Russian) 55, 1190 (1983)Google Scholar
  3. O.M. Artamonov, S.N. Samarin, J. Kirschner, Appl. Phys. A 65 535–42 (1997)Google Scholar
  4. O.M. Artamonov, S.N. Samarin, A.O. Smirnov, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 120(1–3), 11 (2001)Google Scholar
  5. O.M. Artamonov, S.N. Samarin, S. Paolicelli, G. Stefani, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 131–132, 105 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. N.R. Avery, AIP Conf. Proc. 36, 195 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. N.R. Avery, Surf. Sci. 111, 358 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. R.Z. Bachrach, F.C. Brown, S.B.M. Hagström, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 309 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. J. Berakdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(24), 5150 ± 5153 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. J. Berakdar, S.N. Samarin, R. Herrmann, J. Kirschner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3535 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. J. Berakdar, M.P. Das, Phys. Rev. A 56, 1403 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. P. Blaha, K. Schwarz, G.K.H. Madsen, D. Kvasnicka, J. Luitz, WIEN2 k, (Karlheinz Schwarz, Techn. Universit¨at Wien, Austria) (2001). ISBN 3-9501031-1-2Google Scholar
  13. C. Bowles, A.S. Kheifets, V.A. Sashin, M. Vos, E. Weigold, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 141, 95–104 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. A.M. Bradshow, D. Menzel, M. Steinkilberg, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2, Pt. 2, 841–846 (1974)Google Scholar
  15. Y.Q. Cai, M. Vos, P. Storer, A.S. Kheifets, I.E. McCarthy, E. Weigold, Solid State Commun. 95, 25 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. W.A. Caliebe, J.A. Soininen, E.L. Shirley, C.-C. Kao, K. Hämäläinen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3907 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. R. Camilloni, A.G. Guidoni, R. Tiribelli, G. Stefani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 618 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. A. D’Andrea, R. Del Sole, Surf. Sci. 71, 306 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. S.N. Davydov, M.M. Danilov, V.V. Korablev, J. Tech. Phys. (Russian) 69(1), 109 (1999)Google Scholar
  20. J.R. Dennison, A.L. Ritter, J. Electron Spec. Relat. Phenom. 77, 99–142 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. G. Di Filippo, D. Sbaraglia, A. Ruocco, G. Stefani, Phys. Rev. B 94, 155422 (2016)Google Scholar
  22. I. Egri, Solid State Commun. 44, 563 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. H. Ehrhardt, M. Schulz, T. Tekaat, K. Willmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 89 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. M. Erbudak, B. Reihl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 584 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. D. Ewing, F. Seitz, Phys. Rev. 50, 760 (1936)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. R. Feder, H. Gollisch, Solid State Commun. 119, 625 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. B. Feuerbacher, B. Fitton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29(12), 786 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. B. Feuerbacher, R.F. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37(7), 446 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. J.R. Fields, P.C. Gibbons, S.E. Schnatterly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 430 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. A.E. Glassgold, G. Ialongo, Phys. Rev. 175, 151 (1968)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. F. Golek, E. Bauer, Surf. Sci. 369, 415 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. F. Golek, W.J. Sobolewski, Phys. Status Solidi (b) 216 R1 (1999)Google Scholar
  33. F. Golek, Phys. Status Solidi (b) 177, K5 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. H. Gollisch, D. Meinert, X. Yi, R. Feder, Solid State Commun. 102, 317 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. H. Gollisch, R. Feder, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, 2207 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. T.B. Grimley, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 71, 749 (1958)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. G. Hansheng, H. Kawanowa, R. Souda, Appl. Surf. Sci. 158, 163 (2000)Google Scholar
  38. A.I. Gusarov, S.V. Murashov, Surf. Sci. 320, 36 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. M. Hattass, T. Jalowy, A. Czasch, Th Weber, T. Jahnke, S. Schössler, LPh Schmidt, O. Jagutzki, R. Dörner, H. Schmidt-Böcking, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2373 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. M. Hattass, T. Jahnke, S. Schössler, A. Czasch, M. Schöffler, LPhH Schmidt, B. Ulrich, O. Jagutzki, F.O. Schumann, C. Winkler, J. Kirschner, R. Dörner, H. Schmidt-Böcking, Phys. Rev. B 77, 165432 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. P. Hayes, M.A. Bennett, J. Flexman, J.F. Williams, Phys. Rev. B 38, 13371 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. O. Hemmers, S.B. Whitfield, P. Glans, H. Wang, D.W. Lindle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3809 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. H. Burton, J. Liesegang, S.D. Smith, Phys. Rev. B 19, 3004 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. R. Herrmann, S. Samarin, H. Schwabe, J. Kirschner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(10), 2148 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. H. Chiuji, Progr. Theoret. Phys. 21(1), 113 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. S. Hüfner, Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. S. Iacobucci, L. Marassi, R. Camilloni, B. Marzilli, S. Nannarone, G. Stefani, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 76, 109 (1995a)Google Scholar
  48. S. Iacobucci, L. Marassi, R. Camilloni, S. Nannarone, G. Stefani, Phys. Rev. B 51, 10252 (1995b)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. O. Jagutzki, A. Cerezo, A. Czasch, R. Dörner, M. Hattass, M. Huang, V. Mergel, U. Spillmann, K. Ullmann-Pfleger, T. Weber, H. Schmidt-Böcking, G.D.W. Smith, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 2477 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. K. Kimura, G. Andou, K. Nakajima, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research, Section Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, vol. 164, 2000, p. 933Google Scholar
  51. J. Kirschner, O.M. Artamonov, S.N. Samarin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2424 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. J. Kirschner, O. Artamonov, A. Terekhov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1711 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. J. Kirschner, G. Kerhervé, C. Winkler, Rev. Sci. Inst. 79, 073302 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. K.A. Kouzakov, J. Berakdar, Phys. Rev. A 85, 022901 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. U. Kolac, M. Donath, K. Ertl, H. Liebl, V. Dose, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59(9), 1933 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. S.A. Komolov, Total Current Spectroscopy (Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1992)Google Scholar
  57. D.A. Lapiano-Smith, E.A. Eklund, F.J. Himpsel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2174 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. V.G. Levin, V.G. Neudachin, Y.F. Smirnov, Phys. Status Solidi (b) 49, 489 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. E. Luscher Paul, F.M. Propst, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14(1), 400 (1977)Google Scholar
  60. Y.A. Mamaev, L.G. Gerchikov, Y.P. Yashin, D.A. Vasiliev, V.V. Kuzmichev, V.M. Ustinov, A.E. Zhukov, V.S. Mikhrin, A.P. Vasiliev, Appl. Phys. Letts. 93, 081114 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. I.E. McCarthy, E. Weigold, Phys. Rep. 27, 277 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. M. Michaels Amy, M. Nirmal, L.E. Brus, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121(43), 9932 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. H. Morgner, Surf. Sci. 420, 95 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. A. Morozov, J. Berakdar, S.N. Samarin, F.U. Hillebrecht, J. Kirschner, Phys. Rev. B 65, 104425 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. D.R. Mullins, S.H. Overbury, Surf. Sci. 210, 481 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. V.G. Neudachin, G.A. Novoskol’tseva, Y.F. Smirnov, Sov. Phys. JETP 28, 540 (1969)Google Scholar
  67. J.B. Pendry, Low Energy Electron Diffraction (Academic Press, London, New York, 1974)Google Scholar
  68. D.T. Pierce, R.J. Celotta, G.-C. Wang, W.N. Unertl, A. Galejs, C.E. Kuyatt, S.R. Mielczarek, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 478 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. D.T. Pierce, F. Meier, Phys. Rev. B 13, 5484 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. D.T. Pierce, F. Meier, P. Zürcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 670 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. R.T. Poole, J.G. Jenkin, J. Liesegang, R.C.G. Leckey, Phys. Rev. B 11, 5179 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. B. Reihl, M. Erbudak, D.M. Campbell, Phys. Rev. B 19, 9358 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. M. Rohlfing, S.G. Louie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2312 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. G. Roy, G. Singh, T.E. Gallon, Surf. Sci. 152(153), 1042 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. S. Samarin, S. Herrmann, H. Schwabe, O. Artamonov, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 96, 61 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. S. Samarin, J. Berakdar, R. Herrmann, H. Schwabe, O. Artamonov, J. Kirschner, J. Phys. IV, Fr. 9, Pr6–137 (1999)Google Scholar
  77. S. Samarin, J. Berakdar, O. Artamonov, H. Schwabe, J. Kirschner, Surf. Sci. 470, 141 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. S.N. Samarin, O.M. Artamonov, H. Schwabe, J. Kirschner, in The Book: Coincidence Studies of Electron and Photon Impact Ionization, ed. by T.W. Colm, H.R.J. Walters (Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1997), p. 271Google Scholar
  79. S. Samarin, J. Berakdar, A. Suvorova, O.M. Artamonov, D.K. Waterhouse, J. Kirschner, J.F. Williams, Surf. Sci. 548, 187 (2004a)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. S. Samarin, O.M. Artamonov, A.A. Suvorova, A.D. Sergeant, J.F. Williams, Solid State Commun. 129, 389 (2004b)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. S.N. Samarin, O.M. Artamonov, D.K. Waterhouse, J. Kirschner, A. Morozov, J.F. Williams, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1274 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. S. Samarin, O.M. Artamonov, P. Guagliardo, L. Pravica, A. Baraban, F.O. Schumann, J.F. Williams, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 198, 26 (2015)Google Scholar
  83. R. Schlaf, B.A. Parkinson, P.A. Lee, K.W. Nebesny, G. Jabbour, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, N.R. Armstrong, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6729 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. F.O. Schumann, C. Winkler, J. Kirschner, F. Giebels, H. Gollisch, R. Feder, PRL 104, 087602 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. K.S. Shin, H.W. Kim, J.W. Chung, Surf. Sci. 385, L978 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. G. Singh, T.E. Gallon, Solid State Comm. 51(5), 281 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Y.F. Smirnov, V.G. Neudachin, JETP Lett. 3, 192 (1966)ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. T. Straub, R. Claessen, P. Steiner, S. Hüfner, V. Eyert, K. Friemelt, E. Bucher, Phys. Rev. B 55(N20), 13473 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. A.V. Subashievy, Y.A. Mamaev, Y.P. Yashin, J.E. Clendenin, SLAC-PUB-8035 (1998)Google Scholar
  90. Y. Uehara, T. Ushiroku, S. Ushioda, Y. Murata, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 29, 2858 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. M.A. Van Hove, W.H. Weinberd, C.-M. Chan, Low Energy Electron Diraction, Springer Series in Surface Science (Springer, Berlin, 1986)Google Scholar
  92. W. Chao, Y. Kang, L. Weaver, Z. Chang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 075101 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. E. Weigold, S.T. Hood, P.J. Teubner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 475 (1973)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. S.-L. Weng, E.W. Plummer, T. Gustafsson, Phys. Rev. B 18, (4), 1718 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. S.M.W. Werner, A. Ruocco, F. Offi, S. Iacobucci, W. Smekal, H. Winter, G. Stefani, Phys. Rev. B 78, 233403 (2008)Google Scholar
  96. S.M.W. Werner, F. Salvat-Pujol, W. Smekal, R. Khalid, F. Aumayr, H. Störi, A. Ruocco, G. Stefani, Appl. Phys. Letts. 99, 184102 (2011)Google Scholar
  97. J.F. Williams, J. Phys. B 8, 2191 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergey Samarin
    • 1
  • Oleg Artamonov
    • 2
  • Jim Williams
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsThe University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  2. 2.St. Petersburg State UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsThe University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations