Addressing the Mental Health Needs of African American Muslims in an Era of Islamophobia

  • Balkozar AdamEmail author


African American Muslims are a heterogeneous group and represent a variety of cultures, ethnicities, and identities. Between 15% and 20% of enslaved Africans were estimated to be Muslims. Many struggled to hold onto their religious beliefs and cultural practices. In the early twentieth century, institutions and movements alike influenced the religiosity of African American Muslims. In the twenty-first century, most African Americans left behind Islamic organizations focused on black nationalism and connected with the faith and its Sunni-focused teachings. Over the past two decades, media coverage has fueled a combination of fear and curiosity regarding the social and cultural behaviors of American Muslims. Many American Muslims have experienced religious harassment and racial profiling in recent years. The need for clinicians to understand the cultural and religious implications that permeate African American Muslims’ experience and address their mental health needs is discussed.


Black Muslims Heritage Islamophobia Triple minority Treatment consideration 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Missouri-ColumbiaColumbiaUSA

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