How Much Does an e-Vote Cost? Cost Comparison per Vote in Multichannel Elections in Estonia

  • Robert Krimmer
  • David Duenas-CidEmail author
  • Iuliia Krivonosova
  • Priit Vinkel
  • Arne Koitmae
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11143)


We are presenting the results of the CoDE project in this paper, where we investigate the costs per vote of different voting channels in Estonian Local Elections (2017). The elections analyzed involve different processes for casting a vote: Early Voting at County Centers, Advance Voting at County Centers, Advance Voting at Ordinary Voting District Committees, Electronic Voting, Election Day Voting, and Home Voting. Our analysis shows how the administrative costs per e-vote (an electronic vote) are half the price of the second cheapest option (Election Day Voting), representing the most cost-efficient way of organizing elections, given the conditions of this Case Study. Otherwise, different forms of convenience voting have much higher costs, giving us subjects for further discussion on how to organize multichannel elections.


Multi-channel elections Calculation of costs TDABC BPR 



We extend sincere thanks to Breck Shuyler who was assisting us with modelling of BMPNs and on-site observation during the electoral process. This article is based upon work supported by the Estonian Research Council grant (PUT 1361 “Internet Voting as Additional Channel for Legally Binding Elections: Challenges to Voting Processes Re-engineering”, 2017–2020).


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tallinn University of TechnologyTallinnEstonia
  2. 2.State Electoral Office of EstoniaTallinnEstonia

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