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Electron Holography

Chapter
Part of the Springer Handbooks book series (SHB)

Abstract

Electron holography is a powerful technique that allows the phase shift of a high-energy electron wave that has passed through a specimen in the transmission electron microscope to be measured directly. The phase shift can then be used to provide quantitative information about local variations in magnetic field and electrostatic potential both within and surrounding the specimen. This chapter begins with an outline of the experimental procedures and theoretical background that are needed to obtain phase information from electron holograms. It then presents recent examples of the application of electron holography to the characterization of magnetic domain structures and electrostatic fields in nanoscale materials and working devices, including arrangements of closely spaced nanocrystals, patterned elements and nanowires, and electrostatic fields in field emitters and doped semiconductors. The advantages of using digital approaches to record and analyze electron holograms are highlighted. Finally, high-resolution electron holography, alternative modes of electron holography and future prospects for the development of the technique are briefly outlined.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to T. Almeida, J. Barthel, M. Beleggia, S. Blügel, C.B. Boothroyd, T.J. Bromwich, R.F. Broom, P.R. Buseck, J. Caron, S. Chang, R.K.K. Chong, D. Cooper, P. Diehle, H. Du, C. Dwyer, R.B. Frankel, M. Farle, I. Farrer, J.M. Feinberg, P.E. Fischione, R.B. Frankel, K. Harada, R.J. Harrison, L.J. Heyderman, M.J. Hÿtch, B.E. Kardynal, N. Kiselev, M. Kläui, J. Li, Z.-A. Li, J.C. Loudon, D. Meertens, P.A. Midgley, V. Migunov, A.R. Muxworthy, S.B. Newcomb, P. Parameswaran, A.K. Petford-Long, M. Pósfai, G. Pozzi, A. Putnis, D.A. Ritchie, A.C. Robins, C.A. Ross, M.R. Scheinfein, K. Shibata, E.T. Simpson, E. Snoeck, A.H. Tavabi, Y. Tokura, A. Tonomura, S.L. Tripp, A.C. Twitchett-Harrison, A. Wei, W. Williams, F. Winkler, S. Yazdi, F. Zheng and Y. Zhu for discussions and ongoing collaborations. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 823717-ESTEEM3.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg InstituteForschungszentrum Jülich GmbHJülichGermany
  2. 2.National Centre for Nano Fabrication and CharacterizationTechnical University of DenmarkKongens LyngbyDenmark
  3. 3.Dept. of PhysicsArizona State UniversityTempe, AZUSA

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