Skip to main content

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle-to-Grid Feasibility: A Technical Analysis of Aggregated Units Offering Frequency Reserves

Abstract

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) in combination with green hydrogen (obtained from renewable sources), could make a significant contribution in decarbonizing the European transport sector, and thus help achieve the ambitious climate goals. However, most vehicles are parked for about 95% of their life time. This work proposes the more efficient use of these vehicles by providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services achieving the integration of the transport and energy systems. The aim of this work is to determine the technical and financial potential value that FCEVs could have by providing frequency reserves. Experiments were carried out with a Hyundai ix35 FCEV that was adapted with a power output socket so it can operate in V2G when parked, delivering maximum 10 kW direct current power. Results show that both power sources in the fuel cell electric vehicle, which are the fuel cell stack and the battery, can react in the order of milliseconds and thus are suitable to offer fast frequency reserves. The challenge lays in the communication between the car and the party that sends the signal for the activation of the frequency reserves. As one unit does not provide enough power to be able to participate in the electricity market, a car park acting as aggregator of FCEVs was designed taking into account current technology developments. A carpark with a direct current microgrid, a hydrogen local network and only occupied by FCEVs was designed. A financial model was developed to evaluate the economic potential of the car park to participate in the electricity market providing frequency reserves. Results show that by using the fuel cells in the FCEVs in V2G, monetary benefits could be obtained when providing automated frequency restoration reserves (aFRR) upwards. Key parameters are found to be the investment costs, amount of vehicles available, hydrogen price and price of aFRR. With a car park of approximately 400 cars all year long available, payback times of 11.8 and 3.5 years were obtained taking into account worst and best case scenarios for a 15 year period analysis, respectively.

Keywords

  • Frequency Reserve
  • Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV)
  • Payback Time
  • Hydrogen Price
  • Annual Cash Flow

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-00057-8_8
  • Chapter length: 28 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-00057-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   149.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 8.1
Fig. 8.2
Fig. 8.3
Fig. 8.4
Fig. 8.5
Fig. 8.6
Fig. 8.7
Fig. 8.8
Fig. 8.9
Fig. 8.10
Fig. 8.11
Fig. 8.12
Fig. 8.13

References

  1. M. Scherer, Frequency control in the European power system considering the organisational structure and division of responsibilities. Ph.D. thesis (2016). https://doi.org/10.3929/ethz-a-010692129Rights

  2. P.S. Kundur, N.J. Balu, M.G. Lauby, Power System Stability And Control. EPRI Power System Engineering Series (McGraw-Hill, 1994), https://books.google.nl/books?id=v3RxH_GkwmsC

  3. M. Huber, D. Dimkova, T. Hamacher, Energy 69, 236 (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.02.109

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. M.d.l.T. Rodríguez, M. Scherer, D. Whitley, F. Reyer, IEEE PES General Meeting (2014). https://doi.org/10.1109/PESGM.2014.6939825

  5. W. Kempton, S. Letendre, Transp. Res. Part D: Transp. Environ. 2(3), 157 (1997). 1361-9209/97 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1361-9209(97)00001-1

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. A. van Wijk, L. Verhoef, Our car as power plant (2014). https://doi.org/10.3233/978-1-61499-377-3-i, http://www.medra.org/servlet/aliasResolver?alias=iospressISBN&isbn=978-1-61499-376-6&spage=7

  7. W. Kempton, J. Tomić, J. Power Sour. 144(1), 280 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2004.12.022

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  8. P. Codani, M. Petit, SSRN (2014). https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2525290

  9. M.R. Sarker, Y. Dvorkin, M.A. Ortega-Vazquez, IEEE Trans, Power Syst. 31(5), 3506 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2015.2496551

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. W. Kempton, J. Tomic, S. Letendre, A. Brooks, T. Lipman, Vehicle-to-grid power: battery, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles as resources for distributed electric power in California. Technical report, California Air Resources Board and the California Environmental Protection Agency (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  11. X. Zhang, S.H. Chan, H.K. Ho, S.C. Tan, M. Li, G. Li, J. Li, Z. Feng, Int. J. Hydr. Energy 40(21), 6866 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.03.133

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. IEA, Large-scale electricity interconnection - Technology and prospects for cross-regional networks. Technical report (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  13. ENTSO-E, p. 158 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  14. M.J. Poorte, Car park as power plant offering frequency reserves. A technical and economic feasibility assessment. Ph.D thesis, Delft University of Technology (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Products, Day-Ahead Auction (2018), https://www.epexspot.com/en/product-info/auction

  16. Products, Intraday Continuous (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  17. European Commission, Reducing CO2 Emissions from Passenger Cars (2017), https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport/vehicles/cars_en

  18. R.A.C. Van Der Veen, R.A. Hakvoort, 2009 6th International Conference on the European Energy Market, EEM 2009, pp. 1–6 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1109/EEM.2009.5207168

  19. Honda Begins Sales of All-new Clarity Fuel Cell - Clarity Fuel Cell Realizes the World’s Top-class Cruising Range Among Zero Emission Vehicles of Approximately 750 km (2016), http://world.honda.com/news/2016/4160310eng.html?from=r

  20. Hyundai Motor Company (HMC), Hyundai ix35 Fuel Cell (2016), https://www.hyundai.com/worldwide/en/eco/ix35-fuelcell/highlights

  21. Hyundai Media Center. NEXO: The Next-Generation Fuel Cell Vehicle From Hyundai (2018), http://www.hyundainews.com/en-us/releases/2456

  22. Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC), Toyota Global Newsroom: Outline of the Mirai (2014), https://newsroom.toyota.co.jp/en/download/13241306

  23. M. Gurz, E. Baltacioglu, Y. Hames, K. Kaya, Int. J. Hydr. Energy 42(36), 23334 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.02.124

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  24. J.K. Kissock, in Proceedings of the 1998 International Solar Energy Conference (1998), pp. 121–132

    Google Scholar 

  25. T.E. Lipman, J.L. Edwards, D.M. Kammen, Energy Pol. 32(1), 101 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6701(04)90146-4, http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0140670104901464

  26. V. Oldenbroek, L.A. Verhoef, A.J.M.V. Wijk, Int. J. Hydr. Energy 1–31 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.01.155

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  27. V. Oldenbroek, V. Hamoen, S. Alva, C. Robledo, L. Verhoef, A.V. Wijk, in 6th European PEFC and Electrolyser Forum (2017), pp. 1–21. 978-3-905592-22-1

    Google Scholar 

  28. R. van der Veen, R. Verzijlbergh, Z. Lukszo, A.V. Wijk, in 10th International Conference on Sustainable Energy and Environmental Protection (2017), pp. 27–30. https://doi.org/10.18690/978-961-286-054-7.15

  29. The Green Village (2018), https://www.thegreenvillage.org/about-us

  30. T. Lim, B. Ahn, ECS Trans. 50(2), 3 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1149/05002.0003ecst

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  31. SAE International, SAE electric vehicle and plug in hybrid electric vehicle conductive charge coupler. Technical report, SAE International (2017), https://saemobilus.sae.org/content/j1772_201710

  32. RVO, 2, 1 (2016), http://www.bovag.nl/data/sitemanagement/media/2013_cijferselektrischvervoertmdecember2013.pdf

  33. H. platform, Inbreng H2 Platform voor het Aanvalsplan Duurzame Mobiliteit. Stimulering waterstoftankstations en zero emissie brandstofcel elektrische voertuigen 2018–2022, met doorkijk naar 2030. Technical report (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  34. K. Alanne, S. Cao, Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. 1 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.12.098

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  35. P.E. Dodds, W. McDowall, Uk Shec (7), 3 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  36. J. Woudstra, P. van Willigenburg, B. Groenewald, H. Stokman, S. De Jonge, S. Willems, in 2013 Proceedings of the 10th Industrial and Commercial Use of Energy Conference (2013), pp. 2–7, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=6761675

  37. J.J. Justo, F. Mwasilu, J. Lee, J.W. Jung, Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. 24, 387 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.03.067, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.03.067

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  38. A.T. Elsayed, A.A. Mohamed, O.A. Mohammed, Electr. Power Syst. Res. 119, 407 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2014.10.017

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  39. P. Van Willigenburg, J. Woudstra, T. De Lange, H. Stokman, Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on the Domestic Use of Energy, DUE 2014 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1109/DUE.2014.6827758

  40. International Energy Agency, Technology roadmap. Hydrogen and fuel cells. Technical report (2015), http://www.springerreference.com/index/doi/10.1007/SpringerReference_7300

  41. Tractebel Engineering S.A., Hinicio, 228 (2017), http://www.fch.europa.eu/sites/default/files/P2H_Full_Study_FCHJU.pdf

  42. A.J. van Wijk, The green hydrogen economy in the Northern Netherlands. Technical report (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  43. J. Eichman, A. Townsend, J. Eichman, A. Townsend (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  44. N. Sulaiman, M.A. Hannan, A. Mohamed, E.H. Majlan, W.R. Wan, Daud. Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. 52, 802 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.07.132

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  45. S. Dillich, T. Ramsden, M. Melaina, Hydrogen production cost using low-cost natural gas. Technical report (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  46. Energy Renaissance (2018), http://www.h2energyrenaissance.com/

  47. C.B. Robledo, V. Oldenbroek, F. Abbruzzese, A.J. van Wijk, Appl. Energy 215(2017), 615 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.02.038

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  48. M. Jouin, M. Bressel, S. Morando, R. Gouriveau, D. Hissel, M.C. Péra, N. Zerhouni, S. Jemei, M. Hilairet, B. Ould, Bouamama. Appl. Energy 177, 87 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.05.076

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  49. C.B. Robledo, V. Oldenbroek, J. Seiffers, M. Seiffers, A. van Wijk, in 2017 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition (2017), pp. 7–9

    Google Scholar 

  50. A. van Wijk, C. Hellinga, Hydrogen - the key to the energy transition. Technical report (2018), http://edepot.wur.nl/333952

  51. Liander. Liander. Tarieven 2017 voor consumenten. (2017), https://www.liander.nl/consument/aansluitingen/tarieven2017/?ref=14389

  52. J. Wishart, Fuel cells versus batteries in the automotive sector. Technical report (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  53. Beacon Power, Frequency regulation compensation in the safe harbor statement. Technical report (2010), https://www.ferc.gov/EventCalendar/Files/20100526085637-Judson,BeaconPower.pdf

  54. M. Lazarewicz, Flywheel Technology Energy Storage for Grid Services Safe Harbor Statement (2011), https://www.uml.edu/docs/15_Energy_M_Lazarewicz_tcm18-48972.pdf

Download references

Acknowledgements

C. B. Robledo and A.J.M. van Wijk would like to acknowledge the CESEPS project, which has received funding from the EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the ERA-Net Smart Grids plus grant agreement No 646039, from the NWO and from BMVIT/BMWFW under the Energy der Zukunft program. This work was also financially supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) [Program “Uncertainty Reduction in Smart Energy Systems (URSES)”, Project number 408-13-001] and GasTerra B.V.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. B. Robledo .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Robledo, C.B., Poorte, M.J., Mathijssen, H.H.M., van der Veen, R.A.C., van Wijk, A.J.M. (2019). Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle-to-Grid Feasibility: A Technical Analysis of Aggregated Units Offering Frequency Reserves. In: Palensky, P., Cvetković, M., Keviczky, T. (eds) Intelligent Integrated Energy Systems. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-00057-8_8

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-00057-8_8

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-00056-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-00057-8

  • eBook Packages: EnergyEnergy (R0)