The Evolution from Prone to Supine PNL and from Supine PNL to ECIRS: The Basque History of Endourology
The Basque history of PNL shows the fundamental role of the reciprocal interactions among urologists, thanks to books, publications, and congresses, in an era without internet or other nowadays obvious technological supports. G. Ibarluzea experienced also as sometimes practical problems or occasional events (like the limitations of a fixed radiologic table or the Steinstrasse complications of ESWL of large stones) can trigger new ideas like the introduction of the Galdakao-modified supine Valdivia position for percutaneous surgery, first born with the intent to simultaneously treat concomitant ureteral calculi.
KeywordsProne Position Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Lithotomic Position Ureteral Catheter Percutaneous Surgery
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